Browse Results

Showing 85,876 through 85,900 of 100,000 results

Cellular Manufacturing Systems: Design, planning and control

by N. Singh D. Rajamani

Batch manufactcring is a dominant manufacturing activity in the world, generating a great deal of industrial output. In the coming years, we are going to witness an era of mass customization of products. The major problems in batch manufacturing are a high level of product variety and small manufacturing lot sizes. The product variations present design engineers with the problem of designing many different parts. The decisions made in the design stage significantly affect manufacturing cost, quality and delivery lead times. The impacts of these product variations in manufacturing are high investment in equipment, high tooling costs, complex scheduling and loading, lengthy setup time and costs, excessive scrap and high quality control costs. However, to compete in a global market, it is essential to improve the productivity in small batch manufacturing industries. For this purpose, some innovative methods are needed to reduce product cost, lead time and enhance product quality to help increase market share and profitability. What is also needed is a higher level of integration of the design and manufacturing activities in a company. Group technology provides such a link between design and manufacturing. The adoption of group technology concepts, which allow for small batch production to gain economic advantages similar to mass production while retaining the flexibility of job shop methods, will help address some of the problems.

Cellular Manufacturing: Mitigating Risk and Uncertainty

by John X. Wang

In today's business world, competitiveness defines the industrial leading edge. Organizations and businesses of all sizes are adopting Lean manufacturing practices to increase efficiency and address worries about their bottom lines. In a detailed review of this staple of Lean manufacturing, Cellular Manufacturing: Mitigating Risk and Uncertainty ou

Cellular Learning Automata: Theory and Applications (Studies in Systems, Decision and Control #307)

by Alireza Rezvanian Mohammad Reza Meybodi Reza Vafashoar Hossein Morshedlou

This book highlights both theoretical and applied advances in cellular learning automata (CLA), a type of hybrid computational model that has been successfully employed in various areas to solve complex problems and to model, learn, or simulate complicated patterns of behavior. Owing to CLA’s parallel and learning abilities, it has proven to be quite effective in uncertain, time-varying, decentralized, and distributed environments. The book begins with a brief introduction to various CLA models, before focusing on recently developed CLA variants. In turn, the research areas related to CLA are addressed as bibliometric network analysis perspectives. The next part of the book presents CLA-based solutions to several computer science problems in e.g. static optimization, dynamic optimization, wireless networks, mesh networks, and cloud computing. Given its scope, the book is well suited for all researchers in the fields of artificial intelligence and reinforcement learning.

Cellular Imaging: Electron Tomography and Related Techniques (Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering)

by Eric Hanssen

This book highlights important techniques for cellular imaging and covers the basics and applications of electron tomography and related techniques. In addition, it considers practical aspects and broadens the technological focus by incorporating techniques that are only now becoming accessible (e.g. block face imaging). The first part of the book describes the electron microscopy 3D technique available to scientists around the world, allowing them to characterize organelles, cells and tissues. The major emphasis is on new technologies like scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography, though the book also reviews some of the more proven technologies like electron tomography. In turn, the second part is dedicated to the reconstruction of data sets, signal improvement and interpretation

Cellular Image Classification

by Xiang Xu Xingkun Wu Feng Lin

This book introduces new techniques for cellular image feature extraction, pattern recognition and classification. The authors use the antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in patient serum as the subjects and the Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) technique as the imaging protocol to illustrate the applications of the described methods. Throughout the book, the authors provide evaluations for the proposed methods on two publicly available human epithelial (HEp-2) cell datasets: ICPR2012 dataset from the ICPR'12 HEp-2 cell classification contest and ICIP2013 training dataset from the ICIP'13 Competition on cells classification by fluorescent image analysis. First, the reading of imaging results is significantly influenced by one’s qualification and reading systems, causing high intra- and inter-laboratory variance. The authors present a low-order LP21 fiber mode for optical single cell manipulation and imaging staining patterns of HEp-2 cells. A focused four-lobed mode distribution is stable and effective in optical tweezer applications, including selective cell pick-up, pairing, grouping or separation, as well as rotation of cell dimers and clusters. Both translational dragging force and rotational torque in the experiments are in good accordance with the theoretical model. With a simple all-fiber configuration, and low peak irradiation to targeted cells, instrumentation of this optical chuck technology will provide a powerful tool in the ANA-IIF laboratories. Chapters focus on the optical, mechanical and computing systems for the clinical trials. Computer programs for GUI and control of the optical tweezers are also discussed. to more discriminative local distance vector by searching for local neighbors of the local feature in the class-specific manifolds. Encoding and pooling the local distance vectors leads to salient image representation. Combined with the traditional coding methods, this method achieves higher classification accuracy. Then, a rotation invariant textural feature of Pairwise Local Ternary Patterns with Spatial Rotation Invariant (PLTP-SRI) is examined. It is invariant to image rotations, meanwhile it is robust to noise and weak illumination. By adding spatial pyramid structure, this method captures spatial layout information. While the proposed PLTP-SRI feature extracts local feature, the BoW framework builds a global image representation. It is reasonable to combine them together to achieve impressive classification performance, as the combined feature takes the advantages of the two kinds of features in different aspects. Finally, the authors design a Co-occurrence Differential Texton (CoDT) feature to represent the local image patches of HEp-2 cells. The CoDT feature reduces the information loss by ignoring the quantization while it utilizes the spatial relations among the differential micro-texton feature. Thus it can increase the discriminative power. A generative model adaptively characterizes the CoDT feature space of the training data. Furthermore, exploiting a discriminant representation allows for HEp-2 cell images based on the adaptive partitioned feature space. Therefore, the resulting representation is adapted to the classification task. By cooperating with linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier, this framework can exploit the advantages of both generative and discriminative approaches for cellular image classification. The book is written for those researchers who would like to develop their own programs, and the working MatLab codes are included for all the important algorithms presented. It can also be used as a reference book for graduate students and senior undergraduates in the area of biomedical imaging, image feature extraction, pattern recognition and classification. Academics, researchers, and professional will find this to be an exceptional resource.

The Cellular Connection: A Guide to Cellular Telephones

by Robert A. Steuernagel

How to choose cellular service wisely and become an adept cellularuser Keeping in touch via cellular is increasingly vital in today'sfast--paced world. The technology now boasts over 50 millionsubscribers, and that figure is expected to double in the next fiveyears. Whether you are a regular user or an industry professional,The Cellular Connection, Fourth Edition helps you keep current inthe field. Written in a nontechnical language by an industryinsider, this new edition of a highly successful book (over aquarter million copies sold!) demystifies both service andtechnology, explains the shift from mobiles to portables, andupdates all information on cellular phone equipment. Numerousillustrations, photographs, and a special Cellular Buyer'sChecklist accompany this unique guide. The Cellular Connection,Fourth Edition answers all your cellular telephony questions,including: * How the cellular system works * The purposes and advantages of various features * How to choose, install, and operate your phone * How to make sense of your phone bill * What to do when traveling outside your home area * How to tell when you're roaming * What's in the future, including digital cellular and PCS

Cellular Communications Systems in Congested Environments: Resource Allocation and End-to-End Quality of Service Solutions with MATLAB

by Ahmed Abdelhadi Mo Ghorbanzadeh Charles Clancy

This book presents a mathematical treatment of the radio resource allocation of modern cellular communications systems in contested environments. It focuses on fulfilling the quality of service requirements of the living applications on the user devices, which leverage the cellular system, and with attention to elevating the users’ quality of experience. The authors also address the congestion of the spectrum by allowing sharing with the band incumbents while providing with a quality-of-service-minded resource allocation in the network. The content is of particular interest to telecommunications scheduler experts in industry, communications applications academia, and graduate students whose paramount research deals with resource allocation and quality of service.

Cellular Communications: A Comprehensive and Practical Guide (IEEE Series on Digital & Mobile Communication)

by Jeffrey H. Reed Nishith Tripathi

Even as newer cellular technologies and standards emerge, many of the fundamental principles and the components of the cellular network remain the same. Presenting a simple yet comprehensive view of cellular communications technologies, Cellular Communications provides an end-to-end perspective of cellular operations, ranging from physical layer details to call set-up and from the radio network to the core network. This self-contained source for practitioners and students represents a comprehensive survey of the fundamentals of cellular communications and the landscape of commercially deployed 2G and 3G technologies and provides a glimpse of emerging 4G technologies.

Cellular Communications: A Comprehensive and Practical Guide (IEEE Series on Digital & Mobile Communication)

by Jeffrey H. Reed Nishith Tripathi

Even as newer cellular technologies and standards emerge, many of the fundamental principles and the components of the cellular network remain the same. Presenting a simple yet comprehensive view of cellular communications technologies, Cellular Communications provides an end-to-end perspective of cellular operations, ranging from physical layer details to call set-up and from the radio network to the core network. This self-contained source for practitioners and students represents a comprehensive survey of the fundamentals of cellular communications and the landscape of commercially deployed 2G and 3G technologies and provides a glimpse of emerging 4G technologies.

Cellular Ceramics: Structure, Manufacturing, Properties and Applications

by Paolo Colombo Michael Scheffler

Cellular ceramics are a specific class of porous materials which includes among others foams, honeycombs, connected fibers, robocast structures and assembled hollow spheres. Because of their particular structure, cellular ceramics display a wide variety of specific properties which make them indispensable for various engineering applications. An increasing number of patents, scientific literature and international conferences devoted to cellular materials testifies to a rapidly growing interest of the technical community in this topic. New applications for cellular ceramics are constantly being put under development. The book, authored by leading experts in this emerging field, gives an overview of the main aspects related to the processing of diverse cellular ceramic structures, methods of structural and properties characterisation and well established industrial, novel and potential applications. It is an introduction to newcomers in this research area and allows students to obtain an in-depth knowledge of basic and practical aspects of this fascinating class of advanced materials.

Cellular Automata in Image Processing and Geometry (Emergence, Complexity and Computation #10)

by Paul Rosin Andrew Adamatzky Xianfang Sun

The book presents findings, views and ideas on what exact problems of image processing, pattern recognition and generation can be efficiently solved by cellular automata architectures. This volume provides a convenient collection in this area, in which publications are otherwise widely scattered throughout the literature. The topics covered include image compression and resizing; skeletonization, erosion and dilation; convex hull computation, edge detection and segmentation; forgery detection and content based retrieval; and pattern generation. The book advances the theory of image processing, pattern recognition and generation as well as the design of efficient algorithms and hardware for parallel image processing and analysis. It is aimed at computer scientists, software programmers, electronic engineers, mathematicians and physicists, and at everyone who studies or develops cellular automaton algorithms and tools for image processing and analysis, or develops novel architectures and implementations of massive parallel computing devices.The book will provide attractive reading for a general audience because it has do-it-yourself appeal: all the computer experiments presented within it can be implemented with minimal knowledge of programming. The simplicity yet substantial functionality of the cellular automaton approach, and the transparency of the algorithms proposed, makes the text ideal supplementary reading for courses on image processing, parallel computing, automata theory and applications.

Cellular Authentication for Mobile and Internet Services

by Valtteri Niemi Silke Holtmanns Philip Ginzboorg Pekka Laitinen N. Asokan

An invaluable reference discussing the Generic Authentication Architecture (GAA), its infrastructure, usage and integration into existing networks Cellular Authentication for Mobile and Internet Services introduces the reader into the field of secure communication for mobile applications, including secure web browsing with a phone or PC, Single Sign-On (SSO), mobile broadcast content protection, secure location services, etc. The book discusses the Generic Authentication Architecture (GAA) of the mobile standardization body 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) and its American counterpart 3GPP2 in full detail and with all variants. It explains the usage of GAA by various standardization bodies and standardized applications, and also looks at a number of non-standardized ones, such as secure remote login to enterprise environment and card personalization. Cellular Authentication for Mobile and Internet Services: Describes the usage of the generic authentication architecture (GAA) by various standardization bodies and standardized applications, covering mobile broadcast / multicast service security, Single Sign-On, HTTPS (i.e. secure web browsing), secure data access, secure location services, etc Provides guidance on how to integrate the generic authentication into existing and future terminals, networks and applications Explains the functionality of the application security in general as well as on application developer level Describes various business scenarios and related security solutions, and covers secure application implementation and integration Brings together essential information (currently scattered across different standardization bodies) on standards in one comprehensive volume This excellent all-in-one reference will provide system and protocol designers, application developers, senior software project managers, telecommunication managers and ISP managers with a sound introduction into the field of secure communication for mobile applications. System integrators, advanced students, Ph.D. candidates, and professors of computer science or telecommunications will also find this text very useful.

Cellular and Subcellular Nanotechnology: Methods and Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology #991)

by Volkmar Weissig, Tamer Elbayoumi and Mark Olsen

In Cellular and Subcellular Nanotechnology: Methods and Protocols expert researchers in the field detail the most recent advances which have been made in utilizing the enormous potential of nanotechnology for probing, imaging and manipulating life on a cellular and subcellular level. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology™ series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and key tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and Practical, Cellular and Subcellular Nanotechnology: Methods and Protocols seeks to aid scientists in the further study of applying nanotechnology to all areas of biomedical sciences.

Cellular and Porous Materials in Structures and Processes (CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences #521)

by Andreas Öchsner Holm Altenbach

The book covers the state-of-the-art treatment in modelling and experimental investigation of the mechanical behaviour of cellular and porous materials. Starting from the continuum mechanical modelling, to the numerical simulation, several important questions related to applications such as the fracture and impact behaviour are covered.

Cellular and Porous Materials: Thermal Properties Simulation and Prediction

by Andreas Öchsner Graeme E. Murch Marcelo J. S. De Lemos

Providing the reader with a solid understanding of the fundamentals as well as an awareness of recent advances in properties and applications of cellular and porous materials, this handbook and ready reference covers all important analytical and numerical methods for characterizing and predicting thermal properties. In so doing it directly addresses the special characteristics of foam-like and hole-riddled materials, combining theoretical and experimental aspects for characterization purposes.

Cellular and Molecular Toxicology of Nanoparticles (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology #1048)

by Quaiser Saquib Mohammad Faisal Abdulaziz A. Al-Khedhairy Abdulrahman A. Alatar

This edited book is a compilation of findings on the molecular and cellular toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) in animal cell, human cells, invertebrates. The varied selection of test models will provide better understanding about the horizon of NPs toxicity. Interaction of NPs with cells and its organelles can induce toxicological consequences, including transcriptional and translational alterations, DNA damage, cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death. NPs can get internalized in cells through phagocytosis, macropinocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis and passive penetration, which can affect varied cell types. Readers will be benefited with the compilations on basic and molecular facet of NPs toxicity. The chapters will provide a comprehensive information on the state-of-the-art methodologies. The application of toxicogenomic approaches, which is already established in nanotoxicology, has been given special consideration to unravel the toxicodynamics of nanomaterials. Among these approaches, the high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), which is able to build a complete map of transcriptome across different cell types and perturbations upon NPs exposure has been included. The readers are also introduced to the less studied topic on the adsorption of biomolecules (mainly proteins) on the NPs surface, constituting the so-called “biomolecular corona”. The book has been designed for scientists engaged in NPs toxicity research. Nonetheless, it should be of interest to a variety of scientific disciplines including marine biology, environmental pollution, genetics, pharmacology, medicine, drug and food material sciences, consumer products. Also, the compilations will be of interest to the environmental watchdogs, federal regulators, risk assessors and the policy makers.

Cellular and Biomolecular Mechanics and Mechanobiology (Studies in Mechanobiology, Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials #4)

by Amit Gefen

This book describes these exciting new developments, and presents experimental and computational findings that altogether describe the frontier of knowledge in cellular and biomolecular mechanics, and the biological implications, in health and disease. The book is written for bioengineers with interest in cellular mechanics, for biophysicists, biochemists, medical researchers and all other professionals with interest in how cells produce and respond to mechanical loads.

Cells and Robots: Modeling and Control of Large-Size Agent Populations (Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics #32)

by Dejan Lj. Milutinovic Pedro U. Lima

This monograph has arisen from the multidisciplinary research extending over biology, robotics and hybrid systems theory. It is inspired by modeling reactive behavior of the immune system cell population, where each cell is considered an independent agent. The authors formulate the optimal control of maximizing the probability of robotic presence in a given region and discuss the application of the Minimum Principle for partial differential equations to this problem.

Cells and Biomaterials for Intervertebral Disc Regeneration (Synthesis Lectures on Tissue Engineering)

by Sibylle Grad Mauro Alini David Eglin Daisuke Sakai

Disorders related to the intervertebral disc (IVD) are common causes of morbidity and of severe life quality deterioration. IVD degeneration, although in many cases asymptomatic, is often the origin of painful neck and back diseases. In Western societies IVD related pain and disability account for enormous health care costs as a result of work absenteeism and thus lost production, disability benefits, medical and insurance expenses. Although only a small percentage of patients with disc disorders finally will undergo surgery, spinal surgery has been one of the fastest growing disciplines in the musculoskeletal field in recent years. Nevertheless, current treatment options are still a matter of controversial discussion. In particular, they hardly can restore normal spine biomechanics and prevent degeneration of adjacent tissues. While degeneration affects all areas of the IVD, the most constant and noticeable changes occur in the gel-like central part, the nucleus pulposus (NP). Recent emphasis has therefore been put in biological ways to regenerate the NP; however, there are a number of obstacles to overcome, considering the exceptional biological and biomechanical environment of this tissue. Different biological approaches such as molecular, gene, and cell based therapies have been investigated and have shown promising results in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Nonetheless, considerable hurdles still exist in their application for IVD regeneration in human patients. The choice of the cells and the choice of the cell carrier suitable for implantation pose major challenges for research and development activities. This lecture recapitulates the basics of IVD structure, function, and degeneration mechanisms. The first part reviews the recent progress in the field of disc and stem cell based regenerative approaches. In the second part, most appropriate biomaterials that have been evaluated as cell or molecule carrier to cope with degenerative disc disease are outlined. The potential and limitations of cell- and biomaterial-based treatment strategies and perspectives for future clinical applications are discussed. Table of Contents: Cell Therapy for Nucleus Pulposus Regeneration / Recent Advances in Biomaterial Based Tissue Engineering for Intervertebral Disc Regeneration

Cell Organelles (Plant Gene Research)

by Reinhold G. Herrmann

The compartmentation of genetic information is a fundamental feature of the eukaryotic cell. The metabolic capacity of a eukaryotic (plant) cell and the steps leading to it are overwhelmingly an endeavour of a joint genetic cooperation between nucleus/cytosol, plastids, and mitochondria. Alter­ ation of the genetic material in anyone of these compartments or exchange of organelles between species can seriously affect harmoniously balanced growth of an organism. Although the biological significance of this genetic design has been vividly evident since the discovery of non-Mendelian inheritance by Baur and Correns at the beginning of this century, and became indisputable in principle after Renner's work on interspecific nuclear/plastid hybrids (summarized in his classical article in 1934), studies on the genetics of organelles have long suffered from the lack of respectabil­ ity. Non-Mendelian inheritance was considered a research sideline~ifnot a freak~by most geneticists, which becomes evident when one consults common textbooks. For instance, these have usually impeccable accounts of photosynthetic and respiratory energy conversion in chloroplasts and mitochondria, of metabolism and global circulation of the biological key elements C, N, and S, as well as of the organization, maintenance, and function of nuclear genetic information. In contrast, the heredity and molecular biology of organelles are generally treated as an adjunct, and neither goes as far as to describe the impact of the integrated genetic system.

Cell Motility (Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering)

by Peter Lenz

A much-needed work that provides an authoritative overview of the fundamental biological facts, theoretical models, and current experimental developments in this fascinating area. Cell motility is fundamentally important to a number of biological and pathological processes. The main challenge in the field of cell motility is to develop a complete physical description on how and why cells move. For this purpose new ways of modeling the properties of biological cells have to be found – and this volume is a major stepping-stone along the way.

The Cell Method for Electrical Engineering and Multiphysics Problems: An Introduction (Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering #230)

by Piergiorgio Alotto Fabio Freschi Maurizio Repetto Carlo Rosso

This book presents a numerical scheme for the solution of field problems governed by partial differential equations: the cell method. The technique lends itself naturally to the solution of multiphysics problems with several interacting phenomena. The Cell Method, based on a space-time tessellation, is intimately related to the work of Tonti and to his ideas of classification diagrams or, as they are nowadays called, Tonti diagrams: a graphical representation of the problem's equations made possible by a suitable selection of a space-time framework relating physical variables to each other. The main features of the cell method are presented and links with many other discrete numerical methods (finite integration techniques, finite difference time domain, finite volumes, mimetic finite differences, etc.) are discussed. After outlining the theoretical basis of the method, a set of physical problems which have been solved with the cell method is described. These single and multiphysics problems stem from the authors' research experience in the fields of electromagnetism, elasticity, thermo-elasticity and others. Finally, the implementation of the numerical technique is described in all its main components: space-time discretization, problem formulation, solution and representation of the resulting physical fields.

The Cell Manufacturing Playbook: A Step-by-Step Guideline for the Lean Practitioner (The\lean Playbook Ser.)

by Chris A. Ortiz

Cell manufacturing takes traditional process-based production environments and creates right-sized smaller work areas that have all of the essential workstations and equipment needed to produce the product.Until now, there has been a need for a book with step-by-step guidelines on how to implement cell manufacturing, also known as work cells. Compl

The Cell Manufacturing Playbook: A Step-by-Step Guideline for the Lean Practitioner (The\lean Playbook Ser.)

by Chris A. Ortiz

This book describes how to effectively implement cell manufacturing. It covers the eight Wastes of Lean and the six Lean metrics that are recommended in each implementation and a description of what cell manufacturing is and its application to improving operational processes.

Cell-Inspired Materials and Engineering (Fundamental Biomedical Technologies)

by Daniel Packwood Dan Ohtan Wang

This book highlights cutting-edge studies in the development of cell-inspired biomaterials and synthetic materials that manipulate cell functions and provide the next generation with contemporary tools for treating complex human diseases. It explores the convergence of synthetic materials with cell and molecular biology and surveys how functional materials, when patterned with spatial and temporal precision, can be used effectively to maintain cell proliferation and phenotype in vitro, to trigger specific cell functions, and to redirect cell-fate decisions. Human stem cells are a frequently discussed subject in this book. This is an ideal book for students, cell biologists, researchers interested in interdisciplinary research, and biomedical engineers. This book also: Highlights successfully developed technologies in cell engineering that make possible new therapeutic development for previously untreatable conditions Covers topics including bio-inspired micro patterning, DNA origami technology, synthetic NOS inspired by compartmentalized signaling in cells, and light-induced depolarization of the cell membrane Illustrates in detail the use of stem cells and synthetic scaffolds to model ethically sensitive embryonic tissues and organs

Refine Search

Showing 85,876 through 85,900 of 100,000 results