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Aristotle on Human Nature: The Animal with Logos

Exploring Aristotle's concept of logos, this volume advances our understanding of it as a singular feature of human nature by arguing that it is the organizing principle of human life itself. Tracing its multiple meanings in different contexts, including reason, logic, speech, ratio, account, and form, contributors highlight the ways in which we can see logos in human thinking, in the organizing principles of our bodies, in our perception of the world, in our social and political life, and through our productive and fine arts. Through this focus, logos reveals itself not as one feature amongst others, but instead as the feature that organizes all others, from the most “animal” to the most “spiritual.” By presenting logos in this way, readers gain a complex account of the philosophy of human nature.

The Ethics of Water: From Commodification to Common Ownership

by Cameron Fioret

In this global approach to climate change and freshwater access, Cameron Fioret explores the harmful effects of water commodification. Making use of deliberative democratic theory, Fioret suggests tools that can change the balance of democratic decision-making power by rethinking the governance of water more broadly.Five main case studies including Detroit, Cochabamba, and Kerala span four continents to convey the global and local scope of normative water issues. These examples draw on contemporary water justice movements to explore how anti-water-commodification struggles can utilize water recommoning practices to make water governance processes more deeply democratic. Highlighting the ethical and sociopolitical ramifications of water injustice, this study moves beyond the surface issue of distributional concerns. To this end, Fioret draws on research in democratic political theory and environmental philosophy to consider what right people have to water, the putative harms of privatizing and commodifying water, common ownership, and legal protections, alongside local and transnational political activism. In navigating these pressing issues, The Ethics of Water provides a searing analysis of water commodification and political domination today.

Machines Against Measures (Autonomy and Automation)

by Irene Sotiropoulou

Are we doomed because of the new digital technologies used in workspaces? Can we avoid measuring in our work? Or are we trapped in a metrification dystopia? Can we create workspaces that can produce what we prefer in order to use our human effort in ways that support nature and our communities? And if yes, what technologies could we use?Here, monetary-theorist Irene Sotiropoulou explores and critiques the information and communication means that were created for capitalist profit-making, showing how we can subvert these and use them for our own non-capitalist purposes. Machines Against Measures shows that in times of capitalist restructuring and multiple social reproduction crises, there open up new possibilities to experiment with quantity, measuring, machines and digital technologies, creating new ways of production and transaction. Within these, are ways of sharing and producing that defy many principles of capitalist relations. Using everyday examples from grassroots activity, this book offers new insights into how to be inventive with what we have at hand and be able to reflect on what technologies we truly need, revealing a grounded and practical vision of technology and work, based on re-defining why and how we measure what we do.

The Political Economy of Egyptian Media: Business and Military Elite Power and Communication after 2011 (Political Communication and Media Practices in the Middle East and North Africa)

by Maher Hamoud

This book critically analyses the hegemony of Egypt's business and military elites and the private media they own or control. Arguing that this hegemony requires the exercise of power to maintain consent under changing conditions such as the 2011 uprising and the 2013 military coup, the book answers the central question of why and how Egypt's ruling elites control the media. Situated within the interdisciplinary domain of 'critical political economy' (CPE), the book focuses on popular privately-owned newspapers and TV channels and their ownership using a qualitative approach involving fifteen interviews conducted over seven years with key actors and experts in the Egyptian media landscape for unprecedented insight. As the first book on the political economy of Egyptian media, The Political Economy of Egyptian Media serves as a case study and a country profile and will be of appeal to scholars and experts of Middle Eastern studies, political sciences, media and the political economy of communication, among others.

'Twilight of the Idols' and Nietzsche’s Late Philosophy: Toward a Revaluation of Values

by Thomas H. Brobjer

Thomas Brobjer revisits Nietzsche's Twilight of the Idols (1888) and positions it as a rich and stimulating work that contains and summarizes much of Nietzsche's late philosophy, especially his unfinished magnum opus, The Revaluation of All Values. By examining the contents and the purpose of The Twilight of the Idols in relation to Nietzsche's Hauptwerk, Brobjer shows the deep influence of the revaluation project on its construction, a theme ignored by almost all previous commentators. This book reveals more of what Nietzsche was reading as well as outlining influences on him at the time of writing this text, providing a comprehensive commentary that explores both German and English language scholarship. Detailed analyses of the moral, religious and scientific underpinnings of the text enable a new interpretation that is rooted in the project's core philosophy, yielding more knowledge about The Revaluation of All Values as well as Nietzsche's last philosophical thought and position.

Children and Young People's Participation in Child Protection: International Research and Practical Applications (INTERNATIONAL POLICY EXCHANGE SERIES)

by Katrin Križ Mimi Petersen

Children's participation in child protection has become a burgeoning field of interest for scholars and practitioners in the field of social work, and yet there is no edited volume that weaves together recent international contributions on the topic. This volume fills that gap, beginning with the assumption that children can and should have agency in decisions that affect their lives. Child protection is understood as protection from violence in the family and from violence in wider society. Children and youth may encounter public child protection systems in several instances: during child protection investigations, when children receive support services, during decisions about children's removals from home, and when children are in foster, kin, or residential care. Children may experience systemic violence as a lack of personal and economic security, a lack of access to education, and other factors. This book features pathways to children and young people's collective participation in changing child protection policies and services in multiple countries through examples of participatory research and practices promoting children and young people's participation in child protection. It highlights the change actions and voices of empowered and marginalized children and youth in various international contexts. The global examples featured in this volume can serve as an inspiration for children and youth, children's rights activists, child protection practitioners, students, scholars, and public policymakers to initiate, design, and implement participatory child protection policies and practices.

Company Politics: Commerce, Scandal, and French Visions of Indian Empire in the Revolutionary Era

by Elizabeth Cross

In the wake of the Seven Years' War and the consolidation of British power on the subcontinent, the French monarchy chartered a new East India Company. The Nouvelle Compagnie des Indes was an attempt to maintain French diplomatic and financial credit among European rivals and trading partners within a region integral to the broader imperial economy. Reimagining French power as subsisting through an informal empire of trade, instead of a territorial empire of conquest, officials and intellectuals sought to remake the trading company as a private, "purely commercial" actor, rather than a sovereign company-state. Company Politics offers a new interpretation of political economy, imperialism, and the history of the corporation during the late Old Regime and the French Revolution. Despite its reputation for speculation, corruption, and scandal, Elizabeth Cross argues that the "New Company" emerged from the unique circumstances France faced in India as a weakened imperial power vis à vis the expanding British East India Company. Seeking to control the Company for their own purposes, French government officials, theorists, and private financial actors clashed over differing notions of political economy, debt, and imperial power for Europe and the Indian Ocean world. In doing so, they envisioned new alignments between state and market, challenged the legitimacy of the Old Regime's economic and imperial policies, and sought to revolutionize the underlying corporation itself through progressive demands of corporate self-governance. Thus, the New Company should be seen as an innovative capitalist actor in its own right, not a mere derivative of its Anglo-Dutch competitors. A valuable contribution to scholarship on capitalism, empire, and globalization, Company Politics uses the Company's history to present the Revolutionary Era as one of dynamic economic ideologies, practices, and experimentation, rather than only one of crisis and decline.

Critique of Political Decolonization

by Bernard Forjwuor

What is political independence? As a political act, what was it sanctioned to accomplish? Is formal colonialism over, or a condition in the present, albeit mutated and evolved? In Critique of Political Decolonization, Bernard Forjwuor challenges what, in normative scholarship, has become a persistent conflation of two different concepts: political decolonization and political independence. This scholarly volume is an antinormative and critical refutation of the decolonial accomplishment of political independence or self-determination in Ghana. He argues that political independence is insufficiently a decolonial claim because it is framed within the context of a country, where a permanent colonial settlement was never deemed necessary for the consolidation of future colonial political obligations. So, while territorial dissolution was politically engineered by Ghanaians, the colonial merely reconstitutes itself in different legal and ideological forms. Forjwuor offers new methodological, theoretical, and conceptual approaches to engaging the questions of colonialism, political independence, political decolonization, justice, and freedom, and constructs multiple conceptual bridges between traditional disciplinary fields of inquiry including politics, history, law, African studies, economic history, critical theory, and philosophy and political theory. Using the Ghanaian experience as a rich case study, Forjwuor rethinks what colonialism and decolonization mean, and asserts that decolonization is primarily a question of justice.

Part-Time for All: A Care Manifesto (HERETICAL THOUGHT SERIES)

by Jennifer Nedelsky Tom Malleson

An innovative view of how everyone doing part-time work and part-time caregiving would promote flourishing families, free time, equality, and the true value of care. The way that Western countries approach work and care for others is fundamentally dysfunctional. The amount of time spent at work places unsustainable stress on families, particularly in the face of rising inequality, while those who perform care are underpaid and their labor undervalued. In Part-Time for All, Jennifer Nedelsky and Tom Malleson propose a plan to radically restructure both work and care. As such, they offer a solution to four pressing problems: the inequality of caregivers; family stress from competing demands of work and care; chronic time scarcity; and policymakers who are ignorant about the care that life requires--the care/policy divide. Nedelsky and Malleson argue that no capable adult should do paid work for more than 30 hours per week, so that they can contribute substantial amounts of time to unpaid care for family, friends, or other "communities of care." While the authors focus primarily on human-to-human care, they also include care for the earth as a vital part of this shift. All of the elements of Nedelsky and Malleson's proposal already exist piecemeal in various countries. What is needed is to integrate the key reforms and scale them up. The result is an actionable plan to motivate widespread take-up of part-time work and part-time care. Highlighting how these new norms can create synergies of institutional transformation while fostering a cultural shift in the value of care and work, this "care manifesto" identifies the deep changes that are needed and lays out a feasible path forward.

The Peaceful Resolution of Territorial and Maritime Disputes

by Emilia Justyna Powell Krista E. Wiegand

This book is about the peaceful resolution (PR) of territorial and maritime disputes and states' strategic behavior vis-à-vis methods of peaceful resolution: bilateral negotiations, good offices, inquiry, conciliation, mediation, arbitration, and adjudication. The authors argue that the high stakes associated with settlement of territorial and maritime disputes, the diversity of PR methods employed, and unpredictability of outcomes push states to strategize. Strategic considerations undergird states' choice of the particular PR methods, and states' behavior during the resolution once a particular method such as adjudication or negotiations, has been initiated. Uncertainty about the outcome drives states to pursue "strategic selection." The process of strategic selection occurs at two interrelated stages: the initial pursuit of a particular method and venue--choice-of-venue strategic selection, and decision-making once a PR method/venue has been identified--within-venue strategic selection. The driving force behind strategizing in these two settlement stages is the hope of reducing uncertainty and of increasing the chances of winning. Importantly, as the disputants progress through the settlement process, states reconsider and refine these strategies. For each stage of strategic selection, Powell and Wiegand identify several mechanisms that influence states' strategies, including past experiences with PR methods (winning/losing), the relationship between domestic law and international law, framing legal claims, and shaping the resolution procedures. This book embraces a multi-method approach and combines statistical analyses and in-depth qualitative interviews with states' legal counsel, judges, arbitrators, government officials, and other experts from multiple countries. The book also highlights numerous real-world instances of territorial and maritime disputes including the Philippines v. China arbitration case in the South China dispute.

Pearson Edexcel A Level Politics: UK Government and Politics, Political Ideas and Global Politics

by David Tuck Sarra Jenkins John Jefferies Rob Murphy

- Includes all core and non-core political ideas, with key thinkers integrated throughout the text- Provides complete guidance to the Global route of the specification- Strengthens understanding by interweaving both historical context and contemporary examples into the text- Builds confidence by highlighting key terms and explaining links between different topics in the specification- Provides opportunities to test progress with quick knowledge-check questions- Develops analysis and evaluation skills with 'stretch and challenge' activities and suggestions for targeted further reading

Letters for the Ages: The Private and Personal Letters of Sir Winston Churchill

by Sir Winston Churchill

Here are some of the best of Churchill's letters, many of a more personal and intimate nature, presented in chronological order, with a preface to each letter explaining the context. The recipients include a vast range of people, including his schoolmaster, his American grandmother and former President Eisenhower. They are taken from within the Churchill Archive in Cambridge, where there is a mass of Churchill's correspondence. Several of the letters included have never appeared in book form before.Winston Churchill has become an iconic figure greatly loved the world over, but maybe especially these days in the USA. Churchill understood the power of words and he used his writing to sustain and complement his political career, publishing over 40 books and receiving the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1953. This volume concentrates on his more intimate words. It seeks to show the private man behind the public figure and introduce fresh light on Churchill's character and personality by capturing the drama, immediacy, storms, depressions, passions and challenges of Churchill's extraordinary career. Churchill was neither a god nor a demon. Through these letters we see him as a human being with human emotions, frailties and a large ego. He was not always right. He held strong opinions and was often provocative. These letters take us into his world and allow us to follow the changes in his motivations and beliefs as he navigates his 90 years. There are intimate letters to his parents, his teacher at Harrow, Louis de Souza (Boer Secretary of State for War), his wife Clementine, Prime Minister Asquith, Lord Northcliffe, Anthony Eden, President Roosevelt, Eamon De Valera, the French Socialist Prime Minister Léon Blum and Charles De Gaulle. These are letters of a personal nature and are most illuminating. They are enhanced by facsimiles of the letters and images which appear throughout the book, helping the reader to envisage a sense of Churchill in his most private moments.

No Comment: What I Wish I'd Known About Becoming A Detective

by Jess McDonald

'Probably the most important book on the state of British policing you'll ever read' Graham BartlettJess McDonald was a true crime junkie and Line of Duty sofa sleuth with a strong sense of justice. Under a year later, thanks to a controversial new initiative, she was a detective in the London Metropolitan Police Service.The Met Police's Direct Entry Detective scheme was aimed at turning people with no experienceof the police into detectives. When it was launched, to tackle an unprecedented recruitment crisis, over 4,500 people, Jessincluded, applied.But why, within just a year of qualifying, had the majority of Jess' cohort resigned?No Comment is Jess' candid, eye-opening and often shocking account, exploring the reality of being a detective in the Met and responsible for 'keeping London safe for everyone'. In her incisive book she explores the challenges of life on the front line, dealing almost exclusively with serious crimes against women, and what that reveals about the Met Police now.

Polycentrism: How Governing Works Today

This is an open access title available under the terms of a CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International licence. It is free to read at Oxford Academic and offered as a free PDF download from OUP and selected open access locations. How does governing work today? How does society (mis)handle pressing challenges such as armed violence, cultural difference, ecological degradation, economic restructuring, geopolitical shifts, global pandemics, migration flows, and technological change in ways that are (not) democratic, effective, fair, peaceful, and sustainable? This volume addresses these key questions with reference to the theme of 'polycentrism', i.e. the idea that contemporary governing is dispersed, fluctuating, messy, elusive, and headless. Chapters develop this notion of polycentrism from the perspectives of a broad spectrum of academic disciplines and theoretical approaches, offering comprehensive coverage of exciting new thinking about how today's world is (mis)ruled. The book identifies four paradigms of knowledge about polycentric governing - organizational, legal, relational, and structural - and pursues conversations across the divides that normally keep these approaches within separate research communities. These exceptional inter-paradigm exchanges focus particularly on issues of techniques (how governing is done), power (what forces drive governing), and legitimacy (whether governing is rightful). Comparisons between the multiple perspectives on polycentric governing highlight, and help to clarify, the distinctive emphases, potentials, and limitations of each approach. In addition, various combinations of the different theories generate promising novel avenues of thought about polycentrism. The book will allow readers to develop and refine their own understandings of governing today and hence to become more empowered political subjects.

The Elgar Companion to ASEAN (Elgar Companions to International Organisations series)

Providing a contemporary discussion of ASEAN, this holistic Companion critically examines the organisation’s characteristics, strengths and weaknesses, politics and policies, internal dynamics, and external relations.This fascinating and informative Companion makes a significant contribution to the literature on ASEAN, providing a comprehensive overview of the organisation and evaluating multidisciplinary perspectives on Southeast Asian regionalism. Featuring novel insights by distinguished experts in the field, chapters examine ASEAN’s perspectives on security, human rights, and community formation, as well as analyse the relationship between ASEAN and other international organisations, including the EU. The book concludes with a discussion of contemporary discourse on ASEAN’s role in the multilateralism of the Indo-Pacific region and beyond.This stimulating and provocative Companion will be essential reading for students and academics of Asian studies, international relations, political economy, and regulation and governance. It will also be beneficial to policymakers and diplomats with an interest in multilateralism in Asia and Southeast Asian regionalism.

The Fifth Estate: The Power Shift of the Digital Age (OXFORD STUDIES DIGITAL POLITICS SERIES)

by William H. Dutton

In the eighteenth century, the printing press enabled the rise of an independent press--the Fourth Estate--that helped check the power of governments, business, and industry. In similar ways, the internet is forming a more independent collectivity of networked individuals, which William H. Dutton identifies as the Fifth Estate. Their network power is contributing to a more pluralist role of individuals in democratic political processes and society, which is not only shaping political accountability but nearly every sector of society. Yet a chorus of critics have dismissed the internet's more democratic potentials, demonizing social media and user-generated-content as simply sources of fake news and populism. So, is the internet a tool for democracy or anarchy? In The Fifth Estate, Dutton uses estate theory to illuminate the most important power shift of the digital age. He argues that this network power shift is not only enabling greater democratic accountability in politics and governance but is also empowering networked individuals in their everyday life and work, from checking facts to making civic-minded social interventions. By marshalling world leading research and case studies in a wide range of contexts, Dutton demonstrates that the internet and related digital media are enabling ordinary individuals to search, create, network, collaborate, and leak information in such independent and strategic ways that they enhance their informational and communicative power vis-à-vis other actors and institutions. Dutton also makes the case that internet policy interventions across the globe have increased censorship of users and introduced levels of surveillance that will challenge the vitality of the internet and the Fifth Estate, along with its more pluralist distribution of power. Ambitious and timely, Dutton provides an understanding of the Fifth Estate and its democratic potential so that networked individuals and institutions around the world can maintain and enhance its role in our digital age.

Handbook on Ministerial and Political Advisers (Elgar Handbooks in Public Administration and Management)

Making a significant, novel contribution to the burgeoning international literature on the topic, this Handbook charts the various methodological, theoretical, comparative and empirical dimensions of a future research agenda on ministerial and political advisers.With an international approach, a diverse range of expert and emerging scholars perform a thorough sociodemographic analysis of political and ministerial actors across different administrative traditions around the globe. Chapters examine their emergence on the executive stage, the circumstances and various institutional arrangements in which they operate, their contributions as policy workers and their turbulent relationship with the media. Questioning normative stances surrounding corruption in political–administrative relations, this transdisciplinary Handbook provides a constructive, nuanced understanding of the nature and agency of ministerial and political advisers.Addressing both historical and contemporary matters relevant to ministerial and political advisers, this innovative Handbook will prove vital to students and scholars of politics, regulation and governance, public administration, policy and management, and international politics. With fresh and constructive analyses of the field, it will also be a useful resource for private-sector and governmental practitioners seeking insights into the roles and impacts of these advisers.

Legal Advisers in International Organizations (Leuven Global Governance series)

This unique book presents an in-depth analysis of the provision of legal advice at international organizations. It elucidates the dual role of legal advisers as representatives of their organization and as international civil servants acting as protectors and promoters of international law.Analysing the effects of internal and external factors on the work of advisers, including organizational specificity, political influences, and institutional position, this book identifies and examines common legal practices across organizations. Chapters discuss case studies of legal advisers working at various global organizations, including the United Nations, the European Union, UNESCO, the World Health Organization and the World Bank Group, as well as regional and cross-regional organizations such as NATO and the European Space Agency. Contributors emphasise the importance of collegiality and networking between legal advisers and analyse the differences in the delivery of legal services within both governmental and private contexts.Presenting a broad perspective on the work of legal advisers at international organizations, this book will be vital reading for students, scholars, and practitioners of global governance, international law and political science. It will also be beneficial to legal advisers working for international organizations, lawyers, politicians and sociologists.

The Logic of Human Rights: From Subject/Object Dichotomy to Topo-Logic (Elgar Studies in Human Rights)

by Ekaterina Yahyaoui Krivenko

Conceptualizing the nature of reality and the way the world functions, Ekaterina Yahyaoui Krivenko analyzes the foundations of human rights law in the strict subject/object dichotomy. Seeking to dismantle this dichotomy using topo-logic, a concept developed by Japanese philosopher Nishida Kitaro, this topical book formulates ways to operationalize alternative visions of human rights practice.Subject/object dichotomy, Yahyaoui Krivenko demonstrates, emerges from and reflects a particular Western worldview through a quest for rationality and formal logic. Taking a metaphysical and epistemological perspective, this book explores the alternative views of reality and logic, developed by Kitaro, to demonstrate how topo-logic can enable both a theoretical and a practical renewal of human rights and overcome the subject/object dichotomy. Examining the recent growth of social movements, decolonization and diversification of discourses about human rights, and substantive equality, the book identifies these developments in contemporary human rights as indications of a movement towards a topo-logical view beyond the subject/object dichotomy.Students and scholars of critical legal studies, legal theory and philosophy, and international human rights law will find this book to be an invigorating read. Laying ground for the possible renewal and enhancement of human rights law, it will also be a useful resource for practitioners of human rights law.

The Regulation of Intelligence Activities under International Law (Elgar International Law series)

by Sophie Duroy

Presenting a thorough examination of intelligence activities in international law, Sophie Duroy provides theoretical and empirical justifications to support the cutting-edge claim that states’ compliance with international law in intelligence matters serves their national security interests. This book theorises the regulation of intelligence activities under international law, identifying three layers of regulation: a clear legal framework governing intelligence activities (legality); a capacity to enforce state responsibility (accountability); and the integration of legality and accountability into responsive regulation by the international legal order (compliance). The empirical relevance of these three layers of regulation is demonstrated through in-depth case studies of state responsibility in the CIA-led war on terror and an analysis of the accountability of Djibouti, the Gambia, Poland, the United Kingdom, and the United States for conduct in the CIA-led war on terror. Overall, the author shows that the most reliable path to long-term national security is the effective regulation of intelligence activities under international law. Making an original contribution to existing theories of compliance and regulation, as well as the law of state responsibility and its enforcement, this book will be essential for students and scholars of public international law, human rights, intelligence and security studies, and international relations. It will also be a valuable resource for practitioners of international law with an interest in intelligence, state responsibility, and terrorism and security law.

Art and Human Rights: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Contemporary Issues

This timely book builds bridges between the notions of art and aesthetics, human rights, universality, and dignity. It explores a world in which art and justice enter a discussion to answer questions such as: can art translate the human experience? How does humanity link individuality and community building? How do human beings define and look for their identity? The fields of human rights and art are brought together in order to open the discussion and contribute to the promotion and protection of human rights.This interdisciplinary book brings together experts in the fields of art, cultural heritage, social justice, human rights, international law, and transitional justice, and presents the idea that a complex interplay between morality, politics, law, and aesthetics remains present in concrete settings such as the rights of cultural creators, the right to artistic expression, art as a catalyst of change in times of conflict, and post-conflict restitutions. The book offers vignettes of current debates in art and human rights, tackling issues at the confluence of these fields by providing a general framework upon which the conversation can be built, and by bringing to the discussion a diverse range of contemporary themes and concrete case analyses.This book will be an ideal read for academics interested in international law, transitional justice and human rights. Historians, lawyers, artists, and activists looking to explore the relationship between art and human rights in times of war, peace, and transition through their assessment of contemporary issues will also benefit from this comprehensive book.

Handbook on Transport Pricing and Financing (Research Handbooks in Transport Studies series)

Taking a comprehensive approach to two central, closely intertwined themes in the field of transport economics, this illuminating Handbook recognizes the critical socioeconomic importance of transport pricing and financing.The expert contributors provide insights into how pricing goes beyond fulfilling pure financial requirements, and may help pursuing economic efficiency. The Handbook also devotes attention to new technologies such as digital payment channels, information provision, and dynamic pricing techniques. The authors cover the challenges and opportunities caused by the appearance of new modes of transport such as ride-hailing and automated vehicles. Furthermore, this timely Handbook also helps to address ongoing global issues such as climate change and sustainable development, explicitly recognizing challenges faced in regions across Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe and Oceania.This immersive Handbook will provide undergraduate and postgraduate students of economics, environmental science, transport, political science and urban planning studies with a useful introduction to the topics and the necessary tools to undertake research in transport pricing and financing. Practitioners wishing to understand the theory behind transport pricing and financing decisions will also find this Handbook a useful resource.

Interrogating the Morality of Human Rights (Elgar Studies in Human Rights)

by Michael J. Perry

This forward-thinking book illustrates the complexities of the morality of human rights. Emphasising the role of human rights as the only true global political morality to arise since the Second World War, chapters explore its role as applied to often controversial issues, such as capital punishment, the exclusion of same-sex couples from civil marriage and criminal abortion bans.Clarifying and cross-examining the morality of human rights, Michael J. Perry discusses their connection to moral equality and moral freedom, as well as exploring the significance of anti-poverty human rights. This illuminating book concludes with an explanation as to why the morality of human rights is acutely relevant to challenges faced by humanity in the modern era. In particular, the challenges of growing economic inequality and climate change are emphasised as having profound relevance to the morality of human rights.Interrogating the Morality of Human Rights will be of great benefit to both undergraduate and graduate students who are contemplating the idea of human rights and their morality within their studies. Professors and academics with cause to study and research human rights would also find it to be of interest, particularly those in the field of legal scholarship.

The Mercenary: An Instrument of State Coercion

by Christopher Kinsey

Ever since the French Revolution and the rise of the rise of national armies, the mercenary has been viewed as a maligned and marginalized actor in international relations. The Mercenary challenges this view, suggesting instead that while delegated to the periphery of Great Power politics, the mercenary remained a coercive instrument of state power who was willing to discretely promote the client's foreign policy when called upon to do so. Never has this been more evident than today. This book offers fresh insight into the future of the mercenary as an instrument of state coercion and explains why there is a mercenary renaissance in the 21st century. The start of the 21st century has seen renewed interest in the mercenary from across the political spectrum. The growing reliance by the US, Russia, and China on military and security contractors suggests that the mercenary remains a key player in International Politics, now emerging from the shadows to help expand state influence on the world stage by serving as an important actor in the conduct of conflict and the winning of small wars. Far from being marginalized, the future of the mercenary is set to be increasingly active.

Nuclear Decisions: Changing the Course of Nuclear Weapons Programs

by Lisa Langdon Koch

Throughout the nuclear age, states have taken many different paths toward or away from nuclear weapons. These paths have been difficult to predict and cannot be explained simply by a stable or changing security environment. We can make sense of these paths by examining leaders' nuclear decisions. The political decisions state leaders make to accelerate or reverse progress toward nuclear weapons define each state's course. Whether or not a state ultimately acquires nuclear weapons depends to a large extent on those nuclear decisions. This book offers a novel theory of nuclear decision-making that identifies two mechanisms that shape leaders' understandings of the costs and benefits of their nuclear pursuits. The internal mechanism is the intervention of domestic experts in key scientific and military organizations. If the conditions are right, those experts may be able to influence a leader's nuclear decision-making. The external mechanism emerges from the structure and politics of the international system. Nuclear Decisions: Changing the Course of Nuclear Weapons Programs identifies three different proliferation eras, in which changes to international political and structural conditions have constrained or freed states pursuing nuclear weapons development. Scholars and practitioners alike will gain new insights from the fascinating case studies of nine states across the three eras. Through this global approach to studying nuclear proliferation, this book pushes back against the conventional wisdom that determined states pursue a straight path to the bomb. Instead, nuclear decisions define a state's nuclear pursuits.

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