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عمدة الطبيب في معرفة النبات

by يحيى مراد

دراسة التراث وتاريخ العلوم عند العرب والمسلمين، أمر لابدّ منه في مرحلة التحوّل التي تمر بها الأمة العربية. ذلك لأن اطلاع أبنائها على المنجزات العلمية التي حققها الأجداد في الماضي، لابدّ أن يكون باعثاً على الثقة في النفوس، وحافزاً لحث الخطى في طريق التقدم العلمي والتقني الذي نسعى لتحقيقه.‏ ومن واجب التراث علينا أن نتصدى بأنفسنا لكشف مكنوناته، ونشر روائعه، وإلقاء الضوء على مدى مساهمته في إغناء المعرفة والعلم خلال قرون عديدة، بعد أن ظل هذا العمل مقتصراً على المستشرقين الذين ينتمون إلى أمم مختلفة.‏ وفي مكتباتنا العربية العامة والخاصة كثير من المخطوطات القيّمة، والكتب النافعة التي لم تدرس حتى الآن، ولاسيّما في موضوع الطب والصيدلة وعلم النبات والتي كان لها سماتها، فأدت دوراً كبيراً في إثراء العلوم وبث روح الحياة. حيث كان يلتقي النبات والدواء في مسيرة واحدة لتأمين الغذاء النافع والدواء الناجع.‏ لقد توافرت للعرب ثروة معرفيّة ولغويّة هائلة حين انصرفوا إلى الطبيعة، كغيرهم من الأمم التي سبقتهم، فوجدوا أن الأرض تزخر بالخيرات، من شجر وعشب وبقل وتابل وغذاء، فانصرفوا إلى "علم الفلاحة" ودراسة النباتات. وألّفوا في ذلك كتباً كثيرة لها أهميتها في ميادين علوم النبات والصيدلة والطب وغيرها.‏ وكانت عنايتهم بأصناف النبات نابعة من حاجتهم إلى الغذاء والدواء معاً. وإلى التطيب بالعطور، وصناعة الصباغة والدباغة، وتركيب المواد الصيدلانية من جذور وقشور وثمار وبذور وأعشاب نباتات مختلفة.‏ وهكذا أصبحت المعاجم العربية، والمؤلفات العلمية، غنية بكم وافر من الأسماء والمصطلحات النباتية، وضمَّت معارف العرب المسلمين القدماء في علمي الطب والنبات. فكانت مصدراً لمن ألف وكتب في المفردات النباتية والغذائية والدوائية. وهي كثيرة العدد نذكر منها: "كتاب النبات" لأبي حنيفة الدينوري(1) ت 282هـ-895م)، وكان من أكثر المعاجم جمعاً للمادة، وأعظمها أثراً في معاجم النبات التي ألفت فيما بعد.‏

The 21st Century Fight for the Amazon: Environmental Enforcement in the World’s Biggest Rainforest

by Mark Ungar

This book is the most updated and comprehensive look at efforts to protect the Amazon, home to half of the world’s remaining tropical forests. In the past five years, the Basin’s countries have become the cutting edge of environmental enforcement through formation of constitutional protections, military operations, stringent laws, police forces, judicial procedures and societal efforts that together break through barriers that have long restrained decisive action. Even such advances, though, struggle to curb devastation by oil extraction, mining, logging, dams, pollution, and other forms of ecocide. In every country, environmental protection is crippled by politics, bureaucracy, unclear laws, untrained officials, small budgets, regional rivalries, inter-ministerial competition, collusion with criminals, and the global demand for oils and minerals. Countries are better at creating environmental agencies, that is, than making sure that they work. This book explains why, with country studies written by those on the front lines—from national enforcement directors to biologists and activists.

The 21st Century Fight for the Amazon: Environmental Enforcement in the World’s Biggest Rainforest

by Mark Ungar

This book is the most updated and comprehensive look at efforts to protect the Amazon, home to half of the world’s remaining tropical forests. In the past five years, the Basin’s countries have become the cutting edge of environmental enforcement through formation of constitutional protections, military operations, stringent laws, police forces, judicial procedures and societal efforts that together break through barriers that have long restrained decisive action. Even such advances, though, struggle to curb devastation by oil extraction, mining, logging, dams, pollution, and other forms of ecocide. In every country, environmental protection is crippled by politics, bureaucracy, unclear laws, untrained officials, small budgets, regional rivalries, inter-ministerial competition, collusion with criminals, and the global demand for oils and minerals. Countries are better at creating environmental agencies, that is, than making sure that they work. This book explains why, with country studies written by those on the front lines—from national enforcement directors to biologists and activists.

The Agri-environment (PDF)

by Kenneth Ward Belcher Kenneth Belcher Clare Lawson John Warren

The application of ecological theory and conservation biology to agricultural ecosystems has become an important and growing research field and undergraduate course component in recent years. This book is both an academic textbook and practical guide to farm conservation, and has evolved from the authors' extensive teaching experience. It covers the ecology of farmed land, how agricultural practices influence the environment, how agriculture has changed over time and how the species that inhabit the agri-environment have adapted. It also covers the history of agricultural policy and subsidies and the development of agri-environment schemes. A number of different farming systems are discussed, as are the difficulties in determining their relative merits. Guidance is offered on how to produce a workable farm conservation plan, and the final chapters look to the future and the development of new, greener farming systems. ISBN: 9780521849654 hardback ISBN: 9780521614887 paperback

Animals of Kruger National Park (PDF)

by Keith Barnes

South Africa's Kruger National Park is one of the largest and most diverse conservation areas in Africa, and a hugely popular visitor attraction. Animals of Kruger National Park is a compact and beautifully illustrated guide, and the essential companion for any safari to the region. With an eye-catching design, authoritative and accessible text and easy-to-use format, this detailed photographic guide provides information on identification, habitat, behaviour, biology and conservation for all the mammals, reptiles and frogs likely to be seen. Introductory sections provide background information on the park and its habitats, when to visit and where to go, and other practical considerations that will help to enhance your understanding, appreciation and enjoyment of the animals of this incredible region. The essential all-in-one Kruger safari companion, ideal for all visitors Unique and attractive layout, featuring 216 stunning colour photographs, 116 track (spoor) illustrations and two maps Covers 57 mammals, 17 reptiles and eight frogs Features the ‘Big 5’—elephants, leopards, lions, rhinoceroses and buffalos—as well as other iconic and charismatic animals Provides key information on identification, behaviour, biology and conservation

Animals of the Serengeti: And Ngorongoro Conservation Area (PDF)

by Adam Scott Kennedy Vicki Kennedy

Containing 146 stunning color photos, Animals of the Serengeti is a remarkable look at the mammals and reptiles most likely to be encountered in the world-famous Serengeti National Park and Ngorongoro Crater. With an eye-catching layout, accessible text, and easy-to-use format, this detailed photographic guide includes 89 species of mammal and reptile. Useful "Top Tips"—shared by local Tanzanian guides that work in the region—provide visitors with insights into behavioral habits and how to locate specific animals. Filled with vivid anecdotes, Animals of the Serengeti will enable any safari traveler to identify the area's wildlife with ease.Covers the 89 species likely to be encountered in Tanzania’s Serengeti National Park and Ngorongoro Conservation Area Features male and female variationsAccessible text aimed at safari visitors of all levels

The Antarctic Dive Guide: Fully Revised and Updated Third Edition

by Lisa Eareckson Kelley

The Antarctic Dive Guide is the first and only dive guide to the seventh continent, until recently the exclusive realm of scientific and military divers. Today, however, the icy waters of Antarctica have become the extreme destination for recreational divers wishing to explore beyond the conventional and observe the strange marine life that abounds below the surface. This book is packed with information about the history of diving in Antarctica and its wildlife, and features stunning underwater photography.The Antarctic Dive Guide covers 31 key dive sites on the Antarctic Peninsula and South Georgia and includes maps and detailed guidance on how best to explore each site. Essential information is also provided on how to choose and prepare for travel to this remote region, and diving techniques for subzero waters. This book is an indispensable resource for anyone considering diving in Antarctica, and an exciting read for anyone interested in this little-explored underwater world.This fully revised and updated third edition:Covers 4 new dive sitesFeatures revised and updated information for the other 27 sites coveredIncludes new sections on the Sea Leopard Project and natural product chemistry from Antarctic marine organisms

Anthropology And Nature (PDF)

by Kirsten Hastrup

On the basis of empirical studies, this book explores nature as an integral part of the social worlds conventionally studied by anthropologists. The book may be read as a form of scholarly 'edgework, ' resisting institutional divisions and conceptual routines in the interest of exploring new modalities of anthropological knowledge making

The Anthropology of Sustainability: Beyond Development and Progress

by Marc Brightman Jerome Lewis

This book compiles research from leading experts in the social, behavioral, and cultural dimensions of sustainability, as well as local and global understandings of the concept, and on lived practices around the world. It contains studies focusing on ways of living, acting, and thinking which claim to favor the local and global ecological systems of which we are a part, and on which we depend for survival. The concept of sustainability as a product of concern about global environmental degradation, rising social inequalities, and dispossession is presented as a key concept. The contributors explore the opportunities to engage with questions of sustainability and to redefine the concept of sustainability in anthropological terms.

The Anthropology of Sustainability: Beyond Development and Progress

by Jerome Lewis Marc Brightman

This book compiles research from leading experts in the social, behavioral, and cultural dimensions of sustainability, as well as local and global understandings of the concept, and on lived practices around the world. It contains studies focusing on ways of living, acting, and thinking which claim to favor the local and global ecological systems of which we are a part, and on which we depend for survival. The concept of sustainability as a product of concern about global environmental degradation, rising social inequalities, and dispossession is presented as a key concept. The contributors explore the opportunities to engage with questions of sustainability and to redefine the concept of sustainability in anthropological terms.

The Anthropology of Sustainability: Beyond Development and Progress

by Jerome Lewis Marc Brightman

This book compiles research from leading experts in the social, behavioral, and cultural dimensions of sustainability, as well as local and global understandings of the concept, and on lived practices around the world. It contains studies focusing on ways of living, acting, and thinking which claim to favor the local and global ecological systems of which we are a part, and on which we depend for survival. The concept of sustainability as a product of concern about global environmental degradation, rising social inequalities, and dispossession is presented as a key concept. The contributors explore the opportunities to engage with questions of sustainability and to redefine the concept of sustainability in anthropological terms.

Arctic Euphoria and International High North Politics

by Geir Hønneland

This pivot describes the ups and downs of Norwegian High North politics since the end of the Cold War. It considers how political interest in the Arctic has been growing rapidly in the international community as states stake their claim to areas of the continental shelf in the Arctic Ocean, and focuses on Russia’s actions, as the Arctic state with the longest shoreline and the only one outside NATO. The author argues that among the Western countries, Norway has the most extensive experience in tackling Russia in the Arctic, and the neighbourhood with the Russian Bear invariably shapes foreign policy, notably in matters of security, and how foreign policy concerns are intertwined with economic motives, be that hopes of access to the big Russian market or to the oil and gas fields on the Russian Arctic shelf. To achieve the combined goal of security and business, the Norwegian Government has regularly orchestrated “Arctic waves” to direct the attention of local, national and international politicians and businesses to the alleged opportunities of the North. In this book, the author takes us through “the Great Barents Awakening” of the 1990s, “the Great High North Enchantment” of the early 2000s and recent years’ “Arctic wave” in Norwegian foreign policy.

Arctic Euphoria and International High North Politics

by Geir Hønneland

This pivot describes the ups and downs of Norwegian High North politics since the end of the Cold War. It considers how political interest in the Arctic has been growing rapidly in the international community as states stake their claim to areas of the continental shelf in the Arctic Ocean, and focuses on Russia’s actions, as the Arctic state with the longest shoreline and the only one outside NATO. The author argues that among the Western countries, Norway has the most extensive experience in tackling Russia in the Arctic, and the neighbourhood with the Russian Bear invariably shapes foreign policy, notably in matters of security, and how foreign policy concerns are intertwined with economic motives, be that hopes of access to the big Russian market or to the oil and gas fields on the Russian Arctic shelf. To achieve the combined goal of security and business, the Norwegian Government has regularly orchestrated “Arctic waves” to direct the attention of local, national and international politicians and businesses to the alleged opportunities of the North. In this book, the author takes us through “the Great Barents Awakening” of the 1990s, “the Great High North Enchantment” of the early 2000s and recent years’ “Arctic wave” in Norwegian foreign policy.

The Arctic Guide: Wildlife of the Far North

by Sharon Chester

The Arctic Guide presents the traveler and naturalist with a portable, authoritative guide to the flora and fauna of earth's northernmost region. Featuring superb color illustrations, this one-of-a-kind book covers the complete spectrum of wildlife—more than 800 species of plants, fishes, butterflies, birds, and mammals—that inhabit the Arctic’s polar deserts, tundra, taiga, sea ice, and oceans. It can be used anywhere in the entire Holarctic region, including Norway’s Svalbard archipelago, Siberia, the Russian Far East, islands of the Bering Sea, Alaska, the Canadian Arctic, and Greenland. Detailed species accounts describe key identification features, size, habitat, range, scientific name, and the unique characteristics that enable these organisms to survive in the extreme conditions of the Far North. A color distribution map accompanies each species account, and alternative names in German, French, Norwegian, Russian, Inuit, and Inupiaq are also provided. Features superb color plates that allow for quick identification of more than 800 species of plants, fishes, butterflies, birds, and mammals Includes detailed species accounts and color distribution maps Covers the flora and fauna of the entire Arctic region

The Arctic Guide: Wildlife of the Far North

by Sharon Chester

The Arctic Guide presents the traveler and naturalist with a portable, authoritative guide to the flora and fauna of earth's northernmost region. Featuring superb color illustrations, this one-of-a-kind book covers the complete spectrum of wildlife—more than 800 species of plants, fishes, butterflies, birds, and mammals—that inhabit the Arctic’s polar deserts, tundra, taiga, sea ice, and oceans. It can be used anywhere in the entire Holarctic region, including Norway’s Svalbard archipelago, Siberia, the Russian Far East, islands of the Bering Sea, Alaska, the Canadian Arctic, and Greenland. Detailed species accounts describe key identification features, size, habitat, range, scientific name, and the unique characteristics that enable these organisms to survive in the extreme conditions of the Far North. A color distribution map accompanies each species account, and alternative names in German, French, Norwegian, Russian, Inuit, and Inupiaq are also provided. Features superb color plates that allow for quick identification of more than 800 species of plants, fishes, butterflies, birds, and mammals Includes detailed species accounts and color distribution maps Covers the flora and fauna of the entire Arctic region

The Ashgate Research Companion To Heritage And Identity (PDF)

by Peter Howard Brian Graham

Heritage represents the meanings and representations conveyed in the present day upon artifacts, landscapes, mythologies, memories and traditions from the past. It is a key element in the shaping of identities, particularly in the context of increasingly multicultural societies. This Research Companion brings together an international team of authors to discuss the concepts, ideas and practices that inform the entwining of heritage and identity. They have assembled a wide geographical range of examples and interpret them through a number of disciplinary lenses that include geography, history, museum and heritage studies, archaeology, art history, history, anthropology and media studies. This outstanding companion offers scholars and graduate students a thoroughly up-to-date guide to current thinking and a comprehensive reference to this growing field.

The Atlantic

by Paul Butel

From Antiquity to modern times, the Atlantic has been the subject of myths and legends. The Atlantic by Paul Butel offers a global history of the ocean encompassing the exploits of adventurers, Vikings, explorers such as Christopher Columbus, emigrants, fishermen, and modern traders. The book also highlights the importance of the growth of ports such as New York and Liverpool and the battles of the Atlantic in the world wars of the twentieth century. The author offers an examination of the legends of the ocean, beginning with the Phoenicians and Carthaginians navigating beyong the Pillars of Hercules, and details the exploitation and power struggles of the Atlantic through the centuries. The book surveys the important events in the Atlantic's rich history and comprehensively analyses the changing fortunes of sea-going nations, including Britain, the United States and Germany.

The Atlantic (PDF)

by Paul Butel

From Antiquity to modern times, the Atlantic has been the subject of myths and legends. The Atlantic by Paul Butel offers a global history of the ocean encompassing the exploits of adventurers, Vikings, explorers such as Christopher Columbus, emigrants, fishermen, and modern traders. The book also highlights the importance of the growth of ports such as New York and Liverpool and the battles of the Atlantic in the world wars of the twentieth century. The author offers an examination of the legends of the ocean, beginning with the Phoenicians and Carthaginians navigating beyong the Pillars of Hercules, and details the exploitation and power struggles of the Atlantic through the centuries. The book surveys the important events in the Atlantic's rich history and comprehensively analyses the changing fortunes of sea-going nations, including Britain, the United States and Germany.

The Atlas of Birds: Diversity, Behavior, and Conservation

by Mike Unwin

The Atlas of Birds captures the breathtaking diversity of birds, and illuminates their conservation status around the world. Full-color maps show where birds are found, both by country and terrain, and reveal how an astounding variety of behavioral adaptations--from flight and feeding to nest building and song--have enabled them to thrive in virtually every habitat on Earth. Maps of individual journeys and global flyways chart the amazing phenomenon of bird migration, while bird classification is explained using maps for each order and many key families. Conservation provides a strong focus throughout, with maps illustrating where and why birds are most under threat, and what is being done to protect them. Separate sections examine key factors influencing their distribution and endangering their survival, from deforestation and climate change to invasive species and the cage-bird trade. Bird groups most affected, such as island endemics, are highlighted, while a fascinating chapter explores the complex historical relationship between birds and humans, with maps and data for everything from poultry farming to birdwatching. The maps are supported by an authoritative text that uses the very latest data and case studies from BirdLife International. Packed with sumptuous photos, original diagrams, and imaginative graphics that bring the numbers to life, this book is a stunning and timely insight into perhaps the most colorful and intriguing group of organisms on our planet. The premier illustrated atlas of bird diversity, behavior, and conservation Features full-color maps, photos, and diagrams Covers bird evolution, classification, and behavior Describes the complex relationship between birds and their habitats Explores the impact of human activities on species survival Illustrates where and why birds are most under threat--and how to protect them

Avian Architecture: How Birds Design, Engineer, and Build

by Peter Goodfellow

Birds are the most consistently inventive builders, and their nests set the bar for functional design in nature. Avian Architecture describes how birds design, engineer, and build their nests, deconstructing all types of nests found around the world using architectural blueprints and detailed descriptions of the construction processes and engineering techniques birds use. This spectacularly illustrated book features 300 full-color images and more than 35 case studies that profile key species worldwide. Each chapter covers a different type of nest, from tunnel nests and mound nests to floating nests, hanging nests, woven nests, and even multiple-nest avian cities. Other kinds of avian construction--such as bowers and harvest wells--are also featured. Avian Architecture includes intricate step-by-step sequences, visual spreads on nest-building materials and methods, and insightful commentary by a leading expert. Illustrates how birds around the world design, engineer, and build their nests Features architectural blueprints, step-by-step sequences, visual spreads on nest-building materials and methods, and expert commentary Includes 300 full-color images Covers more than 100 bird species worldwide

Avian Architecture: How Birds Design, Engineer, and Build

by Peter Goodfellow

Birds are the most consistently inventive builders, and their nests set the bar for functional design in nature. Avian Architecture describes how birds design, engineer, and build their nests, deconstructing all types of nests found around the world using architectural blueprints and detailed descriptions of the construction processes and engineering techniques birds use. This spectacularly illustrated book features 300 full-color images and more than 35 case studies that profile key species worldwide. Each chapter covers a different type of nest, from tunnel nests and mound nests to floating nests, hanging nests, woven nests, and even multiple-nest avian cities. Other kinds of avian construction--such as bowers and harvest wells--are also featured. Avian Architecture includes intricate step-by-step sequences, visual spreads on nest-building materials and methods, and insightful commentary by a leading expert. Illustrates how birds around the world design, engineer, and build their nests Features architectural blueprints, step-by-step sequences, visual spreads on nest-building materials and methods, and expert commentary Includes 300 full-color images Covers more than 100 bird species worldwide

The Balance of Nature: Ecology's Enduring Myth

by John Kricher

The idea of a balance of nature has been a dominant part of Western philosophy since before Aristotle, and it persists in the public imagination and even among some ecologists today. In this lively and thought-provoking book, John Kricher demonstrates that nature in fact is not in balance, nor has it ever been at any stage in Earth's history. He explains how and why this notion of a natural world in balance has endured for so long, and he shows why, in these times of extraordinary human influence on the planet's ecosystems, it is critical that we accept and understand that evolution is a fact of life, and that ecology is far more dynamic than we ever imagined. The Balance of Nature traces the fascinating history of the science of ecology and evolutionary biology, from the discipline's early innovators to the advent of Darwin and evolution, to the brilliant and inquisitive scientific minds of today. Blending insights and entertaining stories from his own remarkable life in science, Kricher reveals how evolution is a powerful engine that drives ecological change, how nature is constantly in flux and, in effect, quite naturally out of balance--and how notions to the contrary are misguided and ultimately hazardous to us all. The Balance of Nature forcefully argues that an understanding of the dynamic nature of ecology and evolution is essential to formulating policies of environmental ethics to guide humanity toward a more responsible stewardship of our planet's ecosystems.

The Battle for Yellowstone: Morality and the Sacred Roots of Environmental Conflict

by Justin Farrell

Yellowstone holds a special place in America's heart. As the world's first national park, it is globally recognized as the crown jewel of modern environmental preservation. But the park and its surrounding regions have recently become a lightning rod for environmental conflict, plagued by intense and intractable political struggles among the federal government, National Park Service, environmentalists, industry, local residents, and elected officials. The Battle for Yellowstone asks why it is that, with the flood of expert scientific, economic, and legal efforts to resolve disagreements over Yellowstone, there is no improvement? Why do even seemingly minor issues erupt into impassioned disputes? What can Yellowstone teach us about the worsening environmental conflicts worldwide?Justin Farrell argues that the battle for Yellowstone has deep moral, cultural, and spiritual roots that until now have been obscured by the supposedly rational and technical nature of the conflict. Tracing in unprecedented detail the moral causes and consequences of large-scale social change in the American West, he describes how a "new-west" social order has emerged that has devalued traditional American beliefs about manifest destiny and rugged individualism, and how morality and spirituality have influenced the most polarizing and techno-centric conflicts in Yellowstone's history.This groundbreaking book shows how the unprecedented conflict over Yellowstone is not all about science, law, or economic interests, but more surprisingly, is about cultural upheaval and the construction of new moral and spiritual boundaries in the American West.

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