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The National Balance Sheet of the United States, 1953-1980 (National Bureau of Economic Research Monograph)

by Raymond W. Goldsmith

In what constitutes a landmark in the field of national accounts, Raymond W. Goldsmith gives detailed estimates of the nation's assets and liabilities year by year from 1953 through 1975 and for the benchmark years of 1900, 1929, and 1980. Special features of this work include presentation of data sector by sector, which casts light on the changing roles of financial institutions, and Goldsmith's expression of data in the form of ratios rather than in absolute dollar values, a device that makes the material both more informative and easier to absorb. The most comprehensive and extensive study of national wealth ever attempted, The National Balance Sheet will be a rich resource for researchers and users of national accounts.

The National Balance Sheet of the United States, 1953-1980 (National Bureau of Economic Research Monograph)

by Raymond W. Goldsmith

In what constitutes a landmark in the field of national accounts, Raymond W. Goldsmith gives detailed estimates of the nation's assets and liabilities year by year from 1953 through 1975 and for the benchmark years of 1900, 1929, and 1980. Special features of this work include presentation of data sector by sector, which casts light on the changing roles of financial institutions, and Goldsmith's expression of data in the form of ratios rather than in absolute dollar values, a device that makes the material both more informative and easier to absorb. The most comprehensive and extensive study of national wealth ever attempted, The National Balance Sheet will be a rich resource for researchers and users of national accounts.

The National Balance Sheet of the United States, 1953-1980 (National Bureau of Economic Research Monograph)

by Raymond W. Goldsmith

In what constitutes a landmark in the field of national accounts, Raymond W. Goldsmith gives detailed estimates of the nation's assets and liabilities year by year from 1953 through 1975 and for the benchmark years of 1900, 1929, and 1980. Special features of this work include presentation of data sector by sector, which casts light on the changing roles of financial institutions, and Goldsmith's expression of data in the form of ratios rather than in absolute dollar values, a device that makes the material both more informative and easier to absorb. The most comprehensive and extensive study of national wealth ever attempted, The National Balance Sheet will be a rich resource for researchers and users of national accounts.

National Basketball Association Strategies: Business Expansions, Relocations, and Mergers (SpringerBriefs in Economics #84)

by Frank P. Jozsa Jr.

This Brief identifies and contrasts the groups of National Basketball Association (NBA) expansion franchises and of any teams that relocated from one metropolitan area or city to another from 1950 to 2013. It discusses historical differences and similarities in the teams’ markets and performances and then as members of divisions and conferences. It measures and compares the emergence, development, and success of the teams by analyzing demographic, economic and sport-specific data. It also discusses the respective mergers of the Basketball Association of America and National Basketball League in 1949, and the American Basketball Association and National Basketball Association in 1976. National Basketball Association Strategies makes an important, relevant, and useful contribution to the literature regarding professional sports operations and to the NBA’s short and long run business strategies in American culture. Besides numerous sports fans within metropolitan areas and extended markets of these NBA teams, the book’s audiences are sports historians and researchers, college and public libraries, and current and potential NBA franchise owners and team executives. This Brief may also be used as a reference or supplemental text for college and university students enrolled in such applied undergraduate and graduate courses and seminars as sports administration, sports business, and sports management.

National Brands and Global Markets: An Historical Perspective (Perspectives in Economic and Social History)

by Nikolas Glover Glover Nikolas

Between Brexit, efforts to ‘Make America great again’, and ongoing appeals for patriotic consumption to boost economies, the intersection between national identity, marketing campaigns, and consumer choices has been brought to the fore. This book maps out this terrain and provides a framework for how research on ‘Made in’ campaigns and programmes in individual countries can be placed into a broader historical context. The book argues that the history of ‘Made in’ can be used to shed light on society at large: the actors that have promoted it, the institutions that have regulated it, and the cultural environments that have attributed it meaning. At times ‘Made in’ has been a basic, descriptive trade mark, while, in other periods, it has been a key component of carefully developed commercial brands, and in yet other instances it has been used in attempts to forge and redefine national identities. The book opens with an introduction to the three key factors which have featured prominently in ‘Made in’ campaigns – commercial logic, national economic policy, and its use as an instrument in political discourse, and it provides an overview of the evolution of ‘Made in’ from a marketing perspective. This is followed by country-specific discussions of ‘Made in’ with case studies including countries in Western Europe, the US, Japan, and the antipodes. This book will be of significant interest to students and scholars of economic history, business history, and marketing.

National Brands and Global Markets: An Historical Perspective (Perspectives in Economic and Social History)


Between Brexit, efforts to ‘Make America great again’, and ongoing appeals for patriotic consumption to boost economies, the intersection between national identity, marketing campaigns, and consumer choices has been brought to the fore. This book maps out this terrain and provides a framework for how research on ‘Made in’ campaigns and programmes in individual countries can be placed into a broader historical context. The book argues that the history of ‘Made in’ can be used to shed light on society at large: the actors that have promoted it, the institutions that have regulated it, and the cultural environments that have attributed it meaning. At times ‘Made in’ has been a basic, descriptive trade mark, while, in other periods, it has been a key component of carefully developed commercial brands, and in yet other instances it has been used in attempts to forge and redefine national identities. The book opens with an introduction to the three key factors which have featured prominently in ‘Made in’ campaigns – commercial logic, national economic policy, and its use as an instrument in political discourse, and it provides an overview of the evolution of ‘Made in’ from a marketing perspective. This is followed by country-specific discussions of ‘Made in’ with case studies including countries in Western Europe, the US, Japan, and the antipodes. This book will be of significant interest to students and scholars of economic history, business history, and marketing.

National Brands and Private Labels in Retailing: First International Symposium NB&PL, Barcelona, June 2014 (Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics)

by Juan Carlos Gázquez-Abad Francisco J. Martínez-López Irene Esteban-Millat Juan Antonio Mondéjar-Jiménez

This book presents latest findings on brand marketing in retail. In times of economic downturn a "new retailing landscape" is being shaped, in which retailers and manufacturers face new challenges to their brand strategies. Marketing professionals need high value-added and timely responses. Among the topics targeted in this volume are: mix of national brands and private labels in retailers' assortments; assortment decisions in times of economic crisis and eventual recovery; consequences of delisting brands on store-related aspects; delisting manufacturers' brands and the effects on the distribution channel relationship; the new "retailing landscape", with special focus on fast moving consumer goods retailing; consumer preferences for national brands and private labels and many more.

National Building and Development Assistance in Africa: Different but Equal

by K. Ishikawa

Sub-Saharan Africa seems to be forgotten in the post-cold war era. But Kaoru Ishikawa's analysis of Africa's history and its political and economic development suggests that a brighter future is in prospect for the nations of Africa. The African nations hosted dynamic societies prior to the slave trade era, and many of the obstacles to their future prosperity and dynamism have been removed. The focus of the book is on how African countries and the international community beyond Africa can work together to realise this potential and build on recent improvements, notably in health and the position of women in society. The ability of South Africa - no longer an international pariah to be a locomotive for growth is assessed.

The National Clean Energy Fund of India: A Framework for Promoting Effective Utilization (SpringerBriefs in Energy)

by Rita Pandey Sanjay Bali Nandita Mongia

The National Clean Energy Fund (NCEF), announced in the Government of India’s Budget 2010-11, is seen as a major step in India's quest for energy security and reducing the carbon intensity of energy. Funding research and innovative projects in clean energy technologies, and harnessing renewable energy sources to reduce dependence on fossil fuels constitute the objectives of the NCEF. The NCEF’s utilization of funds is considered to be rather low and disbursements poorly aligned with the fund’s stated objectives, thus posing a potential risk of diluting the focus of NCEF with adverse implications for the much-needed research and innovation in the clean energy sector in India. The book provides a detailed framework for promoting effective utilization and administration of NCEF. To this effect, it identifies the most promising avenues for utilization of NCEF resources for catalytic opportunities and deployment of new technologies. It also identifies and prioritizes the specific energy sub-sectors towards which the NCEF resources are directed. It also makes suggestions for designing a smart monitoring and evaluation framework for the NCEF. This work provides significant information for the government so that appropriate mid-course corrections may be made in a timely manner. This will also be useful in honing the strategic thinking on a suitable energy-technology policy and an assessment of technology needs and other barriers to the clean energy sector in India.

National Cyber Emergencies: The Return to Civil Defence (Routledge Studies in Conflict, Security and Technology)

by Hayes Greg Austin

This book documents and explains civil defence preparations for national cyber emergencies in conditions of both peace and war. The volume analyses the escalating sense of crisis around state-sponsored cyber attacks that has emerged since 2015, when the United States first declared a national emergency in cyberspace. It documents a shift in thinking in the USA, from cooperative resilience-oriented approaches at national level to more highly regulated, state-led civil defence initiatives. Although the American response has been mirrored in other countries, the shift is far from universal. Civil defence strategies have come into play but the global experience of that has not been consistent or even that successful. Containing contributions from well-placed scholars and practitioners, this volume reviews a selection of national experiences (from the USA, Australia, India, China, Estonia, and Finland) and a number of key thematic issues (information weapons, alliance coordination, and attack simulations). These demonstrate a disconnect between the deepening sense of vulnerability and the availability of viable solutions at the national level. Awareness of this gap may ultimately lead to more internationally oriented cooperation, but the trend for now appears to be more conflictual and rooted in a growing sense of insecurity. This book will be of much interest to students of cyber security, homeland security, disaster management, and international relations, as well as practitioners and policy-makers.

National Cyber Emergencies: The Return to Civil Defence (Routledge Studies in Conflict, Security and Technology)

by Oliver Greg Austin

This book documents and explains civil defence preparations for national cyber emergencies in conditions of both peace and war. The volume analyses the escalating sense of crisis around state-sponsored cyber attacks that has emerged since 2015, when the United States first declared a national emergency in cyberspace. It documents a shift in thinking in the USA, from cooperative resilience-oriented approaches at national level to more highly regulated, state-led civil defence initiatives. Although the American response has been mirrored in other countries, the shift is far from universal. Civil defence strategies have come into play but the global experience of that has not been consistent or even that successful. Containing contributions from well-placed scholars and practitioners, this volume reviews a selection of national experiences (from the USA, Australia, India, China, Estonia, and Finland) and a number of key thematic issues (information weapons, alliance coordination, and attack simulations). These demonstrate a disconnect between the deepening sense of vulnerability and the availability of viable solutions at the national level. Awareness of this gap may ultimately lead to more internationally oriented cooperation, but the trend for now appears to be more conflictual and rooted in a growing sense of insecurity. This book will be of much interest to students of cyber security, homeland security, disaster management, and international relations, as well as practitioners and policy-makers.

The National Debt: A Short History

by Martin Slater

While it is central to today's politics, few people fully understand the National Debt and its role in shaping the course of British history. Without it, Britain would not have gained-and lost-two empires, nor won its wars against France and Germany. But Britain has also been molded by attempts to break free of the Debt, from postwar Keynesian economics to today's austerity. Martin Slater writes a vivid tale colored with some of the most dramatic incidents and personalities of Britain's past-from clashes between King and Parliament, American independence and war in Europe, to the abolition of slavery, the development of the Union and the role of leading figures such as Pitt, Gladstone, Adam Smith and Keynes. From medieval times to the 2008 financial crash and beyond, The National Debt explores the changing fortunes of the Debt, and so of Great Britain.

The National Debt: A Short History

by Martin Slater

While it is central to today's politics, few people fully understand the National Debt and its role in shaping the course of British history. Without it, Britain would not have gained-and lost-two empires, nor won its wars against France and Germany. But Britain has also been molded by attempts to break free of the Debt, from postwar Keynesian economics to today's austerity. Martin Slater writes a vivid tale colored with some of the most dramatic incidents and personalities of Britain's past-from clashes between King and Parliament, American independence and war in Europe, to the abolition of slavery, the development of the Union and the role of leading figures such as Pitt, Gladstone, Adam Smith and Keynes. From medieval times to the 2008 financial crash and beyond, The National Debt explores the changing fortunes of the Debt, and so of Great Britain.

National Development Banks in South America: Governance, Financial Performance and Development Impact (Wirtschaft und Politik)

by Raphael Zimmermann Robiatti

This book features an in-depth comparative study of South American National Development Bank’s governance systems. It explores the relationship between bank governance and performance frameworks, both in terms of financial-economic indicators and development impact. It seeks to observe, analyze, and compare governance arrangements used by different development banks as tools to overcome the challenges associated with state-ownership while remaining financially sustainable and aligned with their policy mandates.

National Duties: Custom Houses and the Making of the American State (American Beginnings, 1500-1900)

by Gautham Rao

In the wake of the American Revolution, if you had asked a citizen whether his fledgling state would survive more than two centuries, the answer would have been far from confident. The problem, as is so often the case, was money. Left millions of dollars of debt by the war, the nascent federal government created a system of taxes on imported goods and installed custom houses at the nation’s ports, which were charged with collecting these fees. Gradually, the houses amassed enough revenue from import merchants to stabilize the new government. But, as the fragile United States was dependent on this same revenue, the merchants at the same time gained outsized influence over the daily affairs of the custom houses. As the United States tried to police this commerce in the early nineteenth century, the merchants’ stranglehold on custom house governance proved to be formidable. In National Duties, Gautham Rao makes the case that the origins of the federal government and the modern American state lie in these conflicts at government custom houses between the American Revolution and the presidency of Andrew Jackson. He argues that the contours of the government emerged from the push-and-pull between these groups, with commercial interests gradually losing power to the administrative state, which only continued to grow and lives on today.

National Duties: Custom Houses and the Making of the American State (American Beginnings, 1500-1900)

by Gautham Rao

In the wake of the American Revolution, if you had asked a citizen whether his fledgling state would survive more than two centuries, the answer would have been far from confident. The problem, as is so often the case, was money. Left millions of dollars of debt by the war, the nascent federal government created a system of taxes on imported goods and installed custom houses at the nation’s ports, which were charged with collecting these fees. Gradually, the houses amassed enough revenue from import merchants to stabilize the new government. But, as the fragile United States was dependent on this same revenue, the merchants at the same time gained outsized influence over the daily affairs of the custom houses. As the United States tried to police this commerce in the early nineteenth century, the merchants’ stranglehold on custom house governance proved to be formidable. In National Duties, Gautham Rao makes the case that the origins of the federal government and the modern American state lie in these conflicts at government custom houses between the American Revolution and the presidency of Andrew Jackson. He argues that the contours of the government emerged from the push-and-pull between these groups, with commercial interests gradually losing power to the administrative state, which only continued to grow and lives on today.

National Duties: Custom Houses and the Making of the American State (American Beginnings, 1500-1900)

by Gautham Rao

In the wake of the American Revolution, if you had asked a citizen whether his fledgling state would survive more than two centuries, the answer would have been far from confident. The problem, as is so often the case, was money. Left millions of dollars of debt by the war, the nascent federal government created a system of taxes on imported goods and installed custom houses at the nation’s ports, which were charged with collecting these fees. Gradually, the houses amassed enough revenue from import merchants to stabilize the new government. But, as the fragile United States was dependent on this same revenue, the merchants at the same time gained outsized influence over the daily affairs of the custom houses. As the United States tried to police this commerce in the early nineteenth century, the merchants’ stranglehold on custom house governance proved to be formidable. In National Duties, Gautham Rao makes the case that the origins of the federal government and the modern American state lie in these conflicts at government custom houses between the American Revolution and the presidency of Andrew Jackson. He argues that the contours of the government emerged from the push-and-pull between these groups, with commercial interests gradually losing power to the administrative state, which only continued to grow and lives on today.

National Duties: Custom Houses and the Making of the American State (American Beginnings, 1500-1900)

by Gautham Rao

In the wake of the American Revolution, if you had asked a citizen whether his fledgling state would survive more than two centuries, the answer would have been far from confident. The problem, as is so often the case, was money. Left millions of dollars of debt by the war, the nascent federal government created a system of taxes on imported goods and installed custom houses at the nation’s ports, which were charged with collecting these fees. Gradually, the houses amassed enough revenue from import merchants to stabilize the new government. But, as the fragile United States was dependent on this same revenue, the merchants at the same time gained outsized influence over the daily affairs of the custom houses. As the United States tried to police this commerce in the early nineteenth century, the merchants’ stranglehold on custom house governance proved to be formidable. In National Duties, Gautham Rao makes the case that the origins of the federal government and the modern American state lie in these conflicts at government custom houses between the American Revolution and the presidency of Andrew Jackson. He argues that the contours of the government emerged from the push-and-pull between these groups, with commercial interests gradually losing power to the administrative state, which only continued to grow and lives on today.

National Economic Accounting: The Commonwealth and International Library: Social Administration, Training Economics and Production Division

by Carleen O'Loughlin

National Economic Accounting seeks to fill a gap that exists in the field of applied national accounting. It examines the relationship between accounting conventions and statistical material used in the accounts. The book is divided into three parts. Part One discusses the methodology of national accounting, and it covers the history, development, and purpose of national accounting. Part Two relates to the sources of data for national accounting, while Part Three discusses short-term, long-term, project, and economical planning, as well as national account statistics, regional studies, and international comparisons. As the book pays special attention to developing countries, it is highly recommended for government officials and others involved in economic matters in those countries. It is also suitable for accountants, economists, and financial analysts who are interested in national accounting and wish to learn more about it.

The National Economy (Greenwood Guides to Business and Economics)

by Bradley A. Hansen

From the impact of rising gas prices to debates over free trade agreements, the workings of the economy remain a mystery to most, even as the demands on our economic resources increase. This volume presents a basic introduction to the national economy—how it works and how various political and business decisions affect it. Chapters one through four explain the concept of Gross Domestic Product, with an emphasis on supply and demand, long-term growth, and short-term fluctuations, resulting from such factors as interest rates and inflation. Chapters five through eight highlight the four basic sectors of the economy—businesses, households, the government, and the international arena—and how they interact. The national economy is the engine of growth for any country—whether it is a superpower with global reach or a small nation struggling to emerge from poverty. Every citizen is a participant in the economy, as they work to create income for their families, pay taxes, spend their earnings of products and services, or draw from government programs, such as welfare or Social Security. And yet the workings of the economy remain a mystery to most, even as the demands on our economic resources increase.

National Effects of the Implementation of EU Directives on Labour Migration from Third Countries

by Roger Blanpain Frank Hendrickx

Guaranteeing third country national workers robust equal treatment with regard to working conditions and pay is a crucial condition for avoiding social dumping, exploitation, and other reasons for regime shopping within the EU. However, Member States are still reluctant to compromise control of their borders and their labour markets. The EU legislation adopted is, as a result, fragmented and full of solutions that give Member States an extensive margin of room for manoeuvre. In this book six distinguished European labour law academics discuss how three EU directives on labour migration – the Single Permit Directive, the Blue Card Directive, and the Directive on Seasonal Employment – interact with the labour migration systems of France, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Sweden – five countries with very different characteristics and approaches to implementation. Concrete issues dealt with in each country include the following: – conditions for granting work permits; - reasons for withdrawing a work permit; - how long a migrant worker can stay; - whether a migrant worker can bring his or her family; - employment and labour rights of migrant workers; - migrant workers' access to social rights; - how a migrant worker may enforce rights; - sanctions for violations of applicable provisions; and - potential for permanent status for a migrant worker. For each of these issues the authors analyse to what extent national legislators have been ready to adapt their national systems in order to fulfill the aims of the EU directives. They also identify unintended, or at least not explicit, effects of the implementation process. The authors clearly reveal whether the ambitions of the EU when initiating this process can be detected in the implementation process, and how implementation of the three directives have changed and could change national law on these issues. As the first in-depth analysis of how the intersection of migration and labour law and their impact on labour and employment relations play out in the EU context this book brings important insights to the growing literature in this field. The analysis will be of particular interest to national legislators, but is also sure to be warmly welcomed by academics and practitioners in fields related to labour and employment and migration.

The National Element in the Development of Fiscal Theory

by O. Kayaalp

Price theory has provided solutions to myriad problems affecting society without invoking any precepts beyond those encapsulated in the standard economic postulate. Fiscal theory, meanwhile, has been closely attentive to the political, sociological and historical circumstances that bear upon the fiscal act. This methodological duality has resulted in the development of fiscal theory in line with the political culture espoused by its originator, usually the one prevailing at home. Thus emerges the need for an analysis of the evolution of fiscal thought along national lines.

National Environmental Policies: A Comparative Study of Capacity-Building

by H. Jörgens

This book is a collection of systematically prepared case studies describing the environmental policy ofthirteen countriesin terms ofcapacity-building. Capacity for environmental policy and management, as the concept is used in this volume, has been defined broadly as a society's "ability (...) to devise and implement solutions to environmental issues as part of a wider effort to achieve sustainable development" (OECD). Since the late 1960s capacity-building in environmental policy and management can be observed across the world. It may have made insufficient progress as yet from an environmentalist point of view, but it has produced some remarkable results, and not only in the industrialised world. In the first chapter we present the conceptual framework that underlies the national case studies. In the course ofour research project the authors ofthe book met together twice to discuss this framework in the light of the national experi­ ences and to harmonise their approaches. In this way we have tried to offer more than a collection of individual and incoherent case studies, focusing only on specific environmental problems, institutions, actors, or instruments. The idea behind this book is to give a systematic, comparative overview ofthe fundamental conditions under which environmental policies is practised in selected countries.

National Finance: A Chinese Perspective

by Yunxian Chen

“National finance” is a new concept launched by the author in his book National Finance ─ A Chinese Perspective, a unique monograph that differs from other financial publications dealing with general topics in public finance. The monograph intends to provide a full, well-developed and macro-level exposition of all major aspects of finance from the perspective of the central government, with focus laid on the most essential, immediate and intricate issues in national financial development, which are the "hard nuts" that have to be cracked on both central and regional levels and on the fronts of both offshore and onshore finance. It attempts to cope with a series of formidable challenges that a country, particularly its top government officials, must take in developing finance: how national finance should develop and overtake in the face of rising financial industries, how it should respond to the influx of AI+blockchain technologies, how a country guards against and copes with systematic or regional financial risks with security, fluidity and profitability serving as its cornerstones, how it can build up and promote the new international financial system and governance amid international financial powers around the world, and so on.

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