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New Horizons in Chinese Linguistics (Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory #36)

by Liliane Haegeman

The past decade and a half has witnessed a great deal of renewed interest in the study of Chinese linguistics, not only in the traditional areas of philological studies and in theoretically oriented areas of syn­ chronic grammar and language change but also in the cultivation of new frontiers in related areas of the cognitive sciences. There is a significant increase in the number of students studying one area or another of the linguistic structure of Chinese in various linguistic programs in the United States, Europe, Australia and in China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, and other parts of Asia. Several new academic departments devoted to the study of linguistics have been established in Taiwan and Hong Kong in the past few years. The increasing research and study activities have also resulted in a number of national and international conferences, including the North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics (NACCL), which has been held annually in the United States; the International Symposium on Chinese Languages and Linguistics (IsCLL), which has had its fourth meeting since it was launched by Academia Sinica in Taiwan in 1990; the International Association of Chinese Linguistics (lACL), created in Singapore in 1992 and now incorporated in Irvine, California, which has held its annual meetings at major institutions in Asia, Europe, and the US.

Parameters in Old French Syntax: Infinitival Complements (Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory #18)

by E.H. Pearce

1.1. AIMS AND ASSUMPTIONS This book presents an analysis of infinitival complement constructions in Old French (OF) from the perspective of the Government-Binding (GB) framework. It aims, therefore, to establish within the terms of the GB framework just how the OF constructions are to be characterized and in just what sense they can or cannot be compared with the corresponding constructions in other Romance languages. The GB framework is an articulated theory about the structure of language which is based on the view that the aim of research into language is to construct a description of language which accurately reflects its essential nature. Whilst we know that individual languages may appear to be superficially very different, we also know that all languages are capable of expressing complex concepts and that all children acquire mastery of the language or languages to which they are exposed. The task, therefore, is to determine both the properties which languages have in common and the bounds within which they may differ. In the pursuit of these aims, the study of various languages of the Romance family has provided a rich source of material for the develop­ ment of the descriptive apparatus. Evidence of the contribution supplied by such work is apparent in references to Romance material in Chomsky (1981, 1982), in volumes such as Jaeggli (1982), Rizzi (1982a), Kayne (1984b), Burzio (1986), and in numerous papers devoted to particular constructions in a variety of Romance languages.

Order and Constituency in Mandarin Chinese (Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory #19)

by Audrey Li Yen Hui

Recent developments in generative grammar have been very stimulating. The current theory defines a small set of principles that apply to all human languages. Efforts have been made to demonstrate the adequacy of this theory for a wide range of languages. We thus see an interesting interface of theory and empirical data: the study of natural languages contributes to defining the properties of Universal Grammar and the predictions of the theory help in uncovering generalizations regarding natural languages. This book aims to add to this exciting development by showing how the analysis of Mandarin Chinese constituent structures helps to define Case Theory and how interesting generalizations concerning Chinese grammar are uncovered through verification of the theoretical predictions. Starting from the inadequacy of work by Koopman, Li, and Travis on the effect of Case directionality on word order, the book shows that a detailed study of Chinese constituent structures allows us to reduce the phrase structure component to a minimal statement concerning the position of the head in a given phrase. It argues that in a given language the constituent structures can be adequately captured by the interaction of Case Theory, Theta Theory, Government Theory, and X Theory. Long­ standing controversies concerning Chinese basic word order are resolved by showing that underlying word order generalizations can differ from surface word order generalizations.

Quantification in the Theory of Grammar (Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy #37)

by Taisuke Nishigauchi

In the past few decades, the development of theoretical linguistics has proved to be successful in shedding light on the intricate nature of language and knowledge of grammar, which contributes to a deeper understanding of the human mind. This book discusses various issues in syntax and logical structure of natural language from theoretical perspectives. The primary data on which theoretical claims are made is drawn from Japanese and Japanese-type languages, but it also contains discussion of related phenomena in English which have never been discussed from the same viewpoint in the current literature. Although the book is written in the format of a version of the Extended Standard Theory tradition, informally referred to as the Principles and Parameters Approach or 'Government and Binding (OB) Theory', it should be of interest to a much wider audience. The reader interested in other theoretical frameworks will find the discussion in this book easily translatable in the framework of his or her choice - in fact, I would like to claim that the problems posed by this book are inevitable in any theory of syntax and semantics of natural language.

On the Definition of Binding Domains in Spanish: Evidence from Child Language (Studies in Theoretical Psycholinguistics #11)

by J.A. Padilla

Linguistic theory has recently experienced a shift in its conceptual approach from the formulation of descriptively adequate accounts of languages to the definition of principles and parameters claimed to reflect the initial structure of the language faculty, often termed Universal Grammar (UG). Linguistic experience is said to have the effect of guiding the child/linguist in fixing the unspecified parameters of U G to determine the grammar of his/her language. The study of anaphora has been of central concern as it addresses directly the innateness vs. experience issue. On the one hand, it is a part of all natural languages that is largely under­ determined by the data, and must therefore be included in the characterization of the initial state of the language faculty. On the other hand, although the principles that govern anaphora do not exhibit extreme variations across languages, a child/linguist must solve language specific issues for his/her language based on linguistic experience. This book examines a set of linguistic structures from both a theoretical and an experimental perspective. The purpose is to xv PREFACE xvi determine the roles of innateness and of experience in the devel­ opment of a child's theory of anaphora for his/her language.

Verb Phrase Syntax: A Parametric Study of English and Spanish (Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory #13)

by Karen Zagona

This study is concerned with the structure of verb phrases in English and Spanish, and with syntactic processes involving VP and Vo. A primary focus of attention is auxiliary verbs. It is argued that the structure dominating these verbs is essentially the same in English and Spanish, as is the structure dominating auxiliaries and 'main' verbs in each language. It must be concluded that the occurrence of distinct syntactic processes affecting auxiliaries and other VP constituents in the two languages does not follow from parametrization of phrase structure. It is argued that similarities between the two languages with respect to the composition of so-called "V*" constructions derive from the fact that VP is licensed under both clauses of the Principle of Full Interpretation, i. e. , predication and sub categorization. Distinct syntactic processes in English and Spanish are argued to follow from the fact that there are inflectional features related to each of these licensing conditions (including specification for [ ± PAST) and nominal person/number features) which affect government relations in distinct ways, resulting in parametrization of S-structure representa­ tions. xi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to express my appreCiatIOn to the Department of Romance Languages at the University of Washington for support for preparation of the final manuscript, and to the Department of Spanish, Italian and Portuguese at the University of Virginia for a leave during which much of this research was accomplished.

Anaphora in Celtic and Universal Grammar (Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory #14)

by R. Hendrick

This book is based in large part on fieldwork that I conducted in Brittany and Wales in 1983 and 1985. I am thankful for a Fulbright Award for Research in Western Europe and a Faculty Development Award from the University of North Carolina that funded that fieldwork. lowe a less tangible, but no less real, debt to Steve Anderson, G. M. Awbery, Steve Harlow and Jim McCloskey whose work initially sparked my interest, and led me to undertake this project. I want to thank Joe Emonds and Alec Marantz who read portions of Chapter 3 and 5. I am particularly grateful though to Kathleen Flanagan, Frank Heny and two anonymous referees who read a dyslexic and schizophrenic manuscript, providing me with criticisms that improved this final version considerably. The Welsh nationalist community in Aberstwyth and its Breton coun­ terpart in Quimper helped make the time I spent in Wales and Brittany productive. I am indebted to Thomas Davies, Partick Favreau, Lukian Kergoat, Sue Rhys, John Williams and Beatrice among others for sharing their knowledge of their languages with me. Catrin Davies and Martial Menard were especially patient and helpful. Without their assistance this work would have been infinitely poorer. I am hopeful that this book will help stimulate more interest in the Celtic languages and culture, and assist, even in a small way, those in Wales and Brittany who struggle to keep their language and culture strong.

Configurationality in Hungarian (Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory #3)

by Katalin E. Kiss

The purpose of this book is to argue for the claim that Hungarian sentence structure consists of a non-configurational propositional component, preceded by configurationally determined operator positions. In the course of this, various descriptive issues of Hungarian syntax will be analyzed, and various theoretical questions concerning the existence and nature of non­ configurational languages will be addressed. The descriptive problems to be examined in Chapters 2 and 3 center around the word order of Hungarian sentences. Chapter 2 identifies an invariant structure in the apparently freely permutable Hungarian sentence, pointing out systematic correspondences between the structural position, interpre­ tation, and stressing and intonation of the different constituents. Chapter 3 analyzes the word order phenomenon traditionally called 'sentence inter- I twining' of complex sentences, and shows that the term, in fact, covers two different constructions (a structure resulting from operator movement, and a base generated pattern) with differences in constituent order, operator scope and V-object agreement. Chapter 4 deals interpretation, case assignment, with the coreference possibilities of reflexives, reciprocals, personal pro­ nouns, and lexical NPs. Finally, Chapter 5 assigns structures to the two major sentence types containing an infinitive. It analyzes infinitives with an AGR marker and a lexical subject, focusing on the problem of case assignment to the subject, as well as subject control constructions, accounting for their often paradoxical, simultaneously mono- and biclausal behaviour in respect to word order, operator scope, and V-object agreement.

Tzotzil Clause Structure (Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory #7)

by J. Aissen

xv NOTES ON THE ORTHOGRAPHY AND CITATIONS xxi LIST OF ABBREVIA TIONS XXIIl CHAPTER 1: GRAMMATICAL NOTES 1 1. Introduction 1 2. Basics 1 3. Major Lexical Classes 2 3. 1. V 3 3. 2. N 3 3. 3. A 5 3. 3. 1. Quantifiers 6 3. 3. 2. Existentials and Locatives 6 4. Minor Lexical Classes 7 4. 1. Clitics 7 4. 1. 1. Clause-proclitic 7 4. 1. 2. S-enclitic 8 4. 1. 3. V-enclitic 8 4. 1. 4. Clause-second 9 4. 2. Directionals 9 4. 3. Particles 11 5. Flagging 11 6. Word Order 12 7. Construction Survey 12 7. 1. Negation 12 13 7. 2. Questions 7. 3. Complement Clauses 14 16 7. 4. Motion cum Purpose 17 7. 5. Topics 7. 6. Prepredicate Position 18 19 Notes CHAPTER 2: THEORETICAL SKETCH 20 20 1. Arcs vii Vlll T ABLE OF CONTENTS 1. 1. Sets of Grammatical Relations 22 1. 2. Stratum 24 Ergative and Absolutive 1. 3. 25 1. 4. 25 Formal Connections between Arcs 2. Sponsor and Erase 26 2. 1. Successors 26 2. 2. Replacers 28 2. 3. Self-Sponsor and Self-Erase 30 3. Ancestral Relations 31 4. Pair Networks 31 Resolution of Overlapping Arcs 32 5. 6. Coordinate Determination 33 7. Rules and Laws 35 8. Word Order 36 9. APG Versions of RG Laws 36 9. 1. Stratal Uniqueness Law 36 9. 2. Chomeur Law and Motivated Chomage Law 36 Relational Succession Law and Host Limitation Law 9. 3.

Italian Syntax: A Government-Binding Approach (Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory #1)

by L. Burzio

In the course of our everyday lives, we generally take our knowledge of language for granted. Occasionally, we may become aware of its great practical importance, but we rarely pay any attention to the formal properties that language has. Yet these properties are remarkably complex. So complex that the question immediately arises as to how we could know so much. The facts that will be considered in this book should serve well to illustrate this point. We will see for example that verbs like arrivare 'arrive' and others like telefonare 'telephone', which are superficially similar, actually differ in a large number of respects, some fairly well known, others not. Why should there be such differencces. we may ask. And why should it be that if a verb behaves like arrivare and unlike tetefonare in one respect. it will do so in all others consistently, and how could everyone know it? To take another case, Italian has two series of pronouns: stressed and unstressed. Thus, for example, alongside of reflexive se stesso 'himself which is the stressed form. one finds si which is unstressed but otherwise synonymous. Yet we will see that the differences between the two could not simply be stress versus lack of stress, as their behavior is radically different under a variety of syntactic conditions.

Tone in Lexical Phonology (Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory #4)

by Douglas Pulleyblank

This book is a revised version of my Ph.D. dissertation that was submitted to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1983. Although much of the analysis and argumentation of the dissertation has survived rewriting, the organization has been considerably changed. To Paul Kiparsky and Morris Halle, lowe a major debt. Not only has it been a great privilege to work on phonology with both of them, but it is hard to imagine what this piece of research would have looked like without them. (They, of course, may well imagine a number of appropriate ways in which the work could be different had I not been involved .... ) In addition, special thanks are due to Ken Hale, the third member of my thesis committee. Our discussions of a variety of topics (including tone) helped me to keep a broader outlook on language than might have otherwise been the result of concentrating on a thesis topic.

Topics in Scandinavian Syntax (Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory #5)

by L. Hellan K. K. Christensen

The present collection of papers grew out of a Workshop on Scandinavian Syntax and Theory of Grammar, held in Trondheim in 1982. Five of the contributions - those by Maling, Herslund, Cooper, Platzack and Thniinsson - are developments of papers read at this workshop, and all of the contributions reflect (and have partly inspired) the strong momentum which this area of research has gained over the last few years. It is our hope that the collection will be useful for those who want to familiarize themselves with this research, as well as for those actively engaged in it. We are grateful to the authors for their collaboration in getting the volume together, and to Frank Heny and the Reidel staff (Martin Scrivener, editor, in particular) for their help, encouragement and patience through the various phases of the production of this book. Very many thanks also to our anonymous referees, and to Elisabet Engdahl for help and advice. KIRST! KOCH CHRISTENSEN LARS HELLAN vii LARS HELLAN AND KIRSTI KOCH CHRISTENSEN INTRODUCTION O. INTRODUCTION A natural theoretical perspective for a language-family-oriented anthology like the present one is that of COMPARATIVE RESEARCH. This is not to say that the papers of this volume are all focused on comparative issues (in fact, most of them are not), but rather that the language family from which most of the data are drawn lends itself naturally to comparative studies.

Dramatizations of Social Change: Herman Heijermans’Plays as Compared with Selected Dramas by Ibsen, Hauptmann and Chekhov (Bibliotheca Neerlandica extra muros #5)

by Hilda van Neck Yoder

Herman Heijermans (1864-1924) was convinced that he lived in an "overgangs­ 1 tijdperk," a transitional period. As a young man in the eighteen nineties, he rejected those values and life styles which he felt belonged to the past period dominated by the bourgeoisie, and sought out situations and a profession which would attune him to the future when, he hoped, the proletariat would 2 be in power. He left the conservative business milieu of Rotterdam in 1892 and went to Amsterdam- then teeming with radical ideas. At first, Heijermans was attracted to a group of poets, de tachtigers, who were claiming to have enlivened the stale tradition of Dutch poetry by discovering language and beauty in a totally new way; but soon he felt them to be elitist. Then, in 1895, he became a member of the newly founded Dutch Social Democratic Workers Party. He alienated himself from the literary circles by claiming that art should be socialistic and by rejecting the class separation between artists and workers. He felt himself to be one with the proletariat and, through them, with "The New Life" and "The New Humanity. " Stimulated by the ongoing theater revival, which he interpreted as an attempt to challenge the bourgeois smugness and moral self-righteousness, he had started to write plays before becoming interested in the Socialist Party.

Transformational Syntax and Model Theoretic Semantics: A Case Study in Modern Irish (Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy #9)

by J. McCloskey

This piece of work began life as a doctoral thesis written at the University of Texas between 1976 and 1978. Now after a year in Dublin it is to become a book. Of the many people in the Department of Linguistics at Texas who shaped my interests and who helped me through the writing of the thesis, I must single out Lee Baker, Lauri Karttunen, Bill Ladusaw, Sue Schmerling and Stanley Peters for special gratitude. All of them have provided specific suggestions which have improved this work, but perhaps more .importantly they provided a uniquely stimulating and harmonious environment in which to work, and a demanding set of professional standards to live up to. To Ken Hale lowe a particular debt of gratitude - for two years of encour­ agement and suggestions, and particularly for a set of detailed comments on an earlier version of the book which led to many changes for the better. I also thank my friends Per-Kristian Halvorsen and Elisabet Engdahl, both of whom took the trouble to provide me with detailed criticisms and comments. In Dublin I am grateful to the School of Celtic Studies of the Institute for Advanced Studies for giving me the opportunity of teaching a seminar on many of the topics covered in the book and of exposing the material to people whose knowledge of the language is unequalled. Donal 6 Baoill and Liam Breatnach have been particularly helpful.

Literature of the Low Countries: A Short History of Dutch Literature in the Netherlands and Belgium

by Reinder Meijer

In any definition of terms, Dutch literature must be taken to mean all literature written in Dutch, thus excluding literature in Frisian, even though Friesland is part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, in the same way as literature in Welsh would be excluded from a history of English literature. Simi­ larly, literature in Afrikaans (South African Dutch) falls outside the scope of this book, as Afrikaans from the moment of its birth out of seventeenth-century Dutch grew up independently and must be regarded as a language in its own right. . Dutc:h literature, then, is the literature written in Dutch as spoken in the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the so-called Flemish part of the Kingdom of Belgium, that is the area north of the linguistic frontier which runs east-west through Belgium passing slightly south of Brussels. For the modern period this definition is clear anough, but for former times it needs some explanation. What do we mean, for example, when we use the term 'Dutch' for the medieval period? In the Middle Ages there was no standard Dutch language, and when the term 'Dutch' is used in a medieval context it is a kind of collective word indicating a number of different but closely related Frankish dialects. The most important of those were the dialects of the duchies of Limburg and Brabant, and of the counties of Flanders and Holland.

Non-Projecting Words: A Case Study of Swedish Particles (Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory #58)

by I. Toivonen

Focusing primarily on Swedish, a Germanic language whose particles have not previously been studied extensively, this study develops a theory of non-projecting words in which particles are morphologically independent words that do not project phrases. It identifies the violations of the basic tenets of X-bar theory and develops a formally explicit revision of X-bar theory that can accommodate the requisite "weak" projections.

The Structure of Coordination: Conjunction and Agreement Phenomena in Spanish and Other Languages (Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory #57)

by J. Camacho

This book analyzes the structure of coordination from two perspectives: the symmetrical properties the construction imposes on its conjuncts, and how conjuncts interact with other categories outside coordination with respect to agreement and other grammatical phenomena. A substantial amount of data represented in this book are taken from varieties of Spanish. Unlike English, Spanish has a rich pattern of overt agreement between the subject and the verb, between nouns and adjectives, and also between clitics and lexical DP objects and indirect objects. Spanish agreement paradigms reveal very interesting patterns of agreement mismatch that provide important theoretical insights. Unless otherwise specified, it can be assumed that non-English examples are from Spanish. IX CHAPTER #1 INTRODUCTION Although coordination has figured more or less steadily in the Generative tradition beginning with Chornsky's (1957) Conjunction Transformation (later known as Conjunction Reduction), until recently, the two prevailing areas of research had been ellipsis (see, for example, Van Oirsouw 1987) and the semantic interpretation of conjuncts.' The internal structure of coordination was usually left unanalyzed, or assumed to be ternary branching, as in (I).

The Navajo Sound System (Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory #55)

by J.M. McDonough

The Navajo language is spoken by the Navajo people who live in the Navajo Nation, located in Arizona and New Mexico in the southwestern United States. The Navajo language belongs to the Southern, or Apachean, branch of the Athabaskan language family. Athabaskan languages are closely related by their shared morphological structure; these languages have a productive and extensive inflectional morphology. The Northern Athabaskan languages are primarily spoken by people indigenous to the sub-artic stretches of North America. Related Apachean languages are the Athabaskan languages of the Southwest: Chiricahua, Jicarilla, White Mountain and Mescalero Apache. While many other languages, like English, have benefited from decades of research on their sound and speech systems, instrumental analyses of indigenous languages are relatively rare. There is a great deal ofwork to do before a chapter on the acoustics of Navajo comparable to the standard acoustic description of English can be produced. The kind of detailed phonetic description required, for instance, to synthesize natural sounding speech, or to provide a background for clinical studies in a language is well beyond the scope of a single study, but it is necessary to begin this greater work with a fundamental description of the sounds and supra-segmental structure of the language. Inkeeping with this, the goal of this project is to provide a baseline description of the phonetic structure of Navajo, as it is spoken on the Navajo reservation today, to provide a foundation for further work on the language.

Syllables In Tashlhiyt Berber And In Moroccan Arabic (International Handbooks of Linguistics #2)

by F. Dell M. Elmedlaoui

This book is intended primarily as an original contribution to the investi­ gation of the phonology of the two main languages spoken in Morocco. Its central topic is syllable structure. Our theoretical outlook is that of generative phonology. Most of the book deals with Tashlhiyt Berber. This language has a syllable structure with properties which are highly unusual, as seen from the vantage point of better-studied languages on which most theorizing about syllabification is based. On the one hand, complex consonant sequences are a common occurrence in the surface representations. On the other hand, syllable structure is very simple: only one distinctive feature bundle (phoneme) may occur in the onset, the nucleus or the coda. The way these two conflicting demands are reconciled is by allowing vowelless sylla­ bies . Any consonant may act as a syllable nucleus. When astring is syllabified, nuclear status is preferentially assigned to the segments with a higher degree of sonority than their neighbours. Consider for instance the expression below, which is a complete sentence meaning 'remove it (m) and eat it (m)': /kks=t t-ss-t=t/ [k. st. s . t:"] . k. k~t. t. s. . slt. The sentence must be pronounced voiceless throughout, as indicated by the IPA transcription between square brackets ; the syllabic parse given after the IPA transcription indicates that the sentence comprises four syllables (syllable nuclei are underlined). The differences between the dialects of Berber have to do primarily with the phonology and the lexicon.

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