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Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2022 (International Perspectives on Education and Society #V46, Part B)

by Alexander W. Wiseman

Since 2013, the Annual Review of Comparative and International Education has covered significant developments in the intersecting fields of comparative education, international education, and comparative and international education. Reflecting on ten prolific years of publication, both volumes of the 2022 Annual Review together present discussions on education trends and directions, conceptual and methodological developments, research-to-practice, area studies and regional developments, and diversification of the field of education. Featuring authors from around the world, they tell the story of comparative and international education as an academic and professional field and address both the functions and ethics of education across vastly different cultures, communities, organizations, and outcomes. Part B explores research-to-practice, area studies and regional development, and diversification of the field. The Annual Review of Comparative and International Education serves as an important reference, a source of knowledge, a record of the skills and how they are implemented, and a figurative mirror helping scholars and professionals alike reflect on their own practice and what it means both to the field and to each other.

Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2022 (International Perspectives on Education and Society #V46, Part A)

by Alexander W. Wiseman

Since 2013, the Annual Review of Comparative and International Education has covered significant developments in the intersecting fields of comparative education, international education, and comparative and international education. Reflecting on ten prolific years of publication, both volumes of the 2022 Annual Review together present discussions on education trends and directions, conceptual and methodological developments, research-to-practice, area studies and regional developments, and diversification of the field of education. Featuring authors from around the world, they tell the story of comparative and international education as an academic and professional field and address both the functions and ethics of education across vastly different cultures, communities, organizations, and outcomes. Part A explores comparative education trends and directions, and conceptual and methodological developments. The Annual Review of Comparative and International Education serves as an important reference, a source of knowledge, a record of the skills and how they are implemented, and a figurative mirror helping scholars and professionals alike reflect on their own practice and what it means both to the field and to each other.

Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2022 (International Perspectives on Education and Society #V46, Part B)

by Alexander W. Wiseman

Since 2013, the Annual Review of Comparative and International Education has covered significant developments in the intersecting fields of comparative education, international education, and comparative and international education. Reflecting on ten prolific years of publication, both volumes of the 2022 Annual Review together present discussions on education trends and directions, conceptual and methodological developments, research-to-practice, area studies and regional developments, and diversification of the field of education. Featuring authors from around the world, they tell the story of comparative and international education as an academic and professional field and address both the functions and ethics of education across vastly different cultures, communities, organizations, and outcomes. Part B explores research-to-practice, area studies and regional development, and diversification of the field. The Annual Review of Comparative and International Education serves as an important reference, a source of knowledge, a record of the skills and how they are implemented, and a figurative mirror helping scholars and professionals alike reflect on their own practice and what it means both to the field and to each other.

Anthropologist and Imperialist: H.H. Risley and British India, 1873-1911

by C. J. Fuller

Sir Herbert Hope Risley (1851 - 1911) - 'H. H. Risley', as he always signed himself - was a member of the Indian Civil Service (ICS) from 1873 to 1910 who served in Bengal and became a senior administrator and policymaker in the colonial government, as well as the pre-eminent anthropologist in British India. He was also an imperialist, who was convinced of the rightness of 'civilising' British rule and its benefits for both India and Britain, and one of this book's objectives is to render his simultaneous commitment to anthropology and imperialism intelligible to present-day readers. More specifically, Anthropologist and Imperialist: H. H. Risley and British India, 1873–1911 documents the two sides of Risley’s career, which is used as a case-study to investigate, first, the production and circulation of colonial knowledge, specifically anthropological knowledge, and secondly, its often loose and inconsistent connection with administration and policymaking, and with the government and state overall. Risley, like other officials engaged in anthropology in India, as well as the government itself, insisted that ethnography and anthropology had both ‘administrative’ and ‘scientific’ value; unlike previous works on Indian colonial anthropology, this book carefully examines its ‘scientific’ contributions in relation to contemporary metropolitan anthropology. It does not attempt to reinvent ‘greatman’ political or intellectual history, but does demonstrate the importance of studying the powerful officials who ruled British India, as well as the minor provincial politicians and subaltern subjects – or the abstract forces, such as colonialism and resistance – that have dominated recent historical scholarship. This book shows, too, that a detailed inquiry into Risley’s career, and his ideas and actions, can open new perspectives on a variety of continuing debates, including those over the colonial construction of caste and race in ‘traditional’ India, orientalism and forms of colonial knowledge, Victorian anthropology’s close relationship with the British empire, and the modern discipline’s uneasy links with its colonial past. Print edition not for sale in South Asia (India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Bhutan)

Anthropologist and Imperialist: H.H. Risley and British India, 1873-1911

by C. J. Fuller

Sir Herbert Hope Risley (1851 - 1911) - 'H. H. Risley', as he always signed himself - was a member of the Indian Civil Service (ICS) from 1873 to 1910 who served in Bengal and became a senior administrator and policymaker in the colonial government, as well as the pre-eminent anthropologist in British India. He was also an imperialist, who was convinced of the rightness of 'civilising' British rule and its benefits for both India and Britain, and one of this book's objectives is to render his simultaneous commitment to anthropology and imperialism intelligible to present-day readers. More specifically, Anthropologist and Imperialist: H. H. Risley and British India, 1873–1911 documents the two sides of Risley’s career, which is used as a case-study to investigate, first, the production and circulation of colonial knowledge, specifically anthropological knowledge, and secondly, its often loose and inconsistent connection with administration and policymaking, and with the government and state overall. Risley, like other officials engaged in anthropology in India, as well as the government itself, insisted that ethnography and anthropology had both ‘administrative’ and ‘scientific’ value; unlike previous works on Indian colonial anthropology, this book carefully examines its ‘scientific’ contributions in relation to contemporary metropolitan anthropology. It does not attempt to reinvent ‘greatman’ political or intellectual history, but does demonstrate the importance of studying the powerful officials who ruled British India, as well as the minor provincial politicians and subaltern subjects – or the abstract forces, such as colonialism and resistance – that have dominated recent historical scholarship. This book shows, too, that a detailed inquiry into Risley’s career, and his ideas and actions, can open new perspectives on a variety of continuing debates, including those over the colonial construction of caste and race in ‘traditional’ India, orientalism and forms of colonial knowledge, Victorian anthropology’s close relationship with the British empire, and the modern discipline’s uneasy links with its colonial past. Print edition not for sale in South Asia (India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Bhutan)

Anti-Fascism and Ethnic Minorities: History and Memory in Central and Eastern Europe (Routledge Studies in Fascism and the Far Right)

by Anders Ahlbäck Kasper Braskén

Anti-Fascism and Ethnic Minorities explores how, and to what extent, fascist ultranationalism elicited an anti-fascist response among ethnic minority communities in Eastern and Central Europe. The edited volume analyses how identities related to class, ethnicity, gender and political ideologies were negotiated within and between minorities through confrontations with domestic and international fascism. By developing and expanding the study of Jewish anti-fascism and resistance to other minority responses, the book opens the field of anti-fascism studies for a broader comparative approach. The volume is thematically located in Central and Eastern Europe, cutting right across the continent from Finland in the North to Albania in the Southeast. The case studies in the fourteen research chapters are divided into five thematic sections, dealing with the issues of 1) minorities in borderlands and cross-border antifascism, 2) minorities navigating the ideological squeeze between communism and fascism, 3) the role of intellectuals in the defence of minority rights, 4) the anti-fascist resistance against fascist and Nazi occupation during World War II, as well as 5) the conflictual role ascribed to ethnicity in post-war memory politics and commemorations. The editors describe their intersectional approach to the analysis of ethnicity as a crucial category of analysis with regard to anti-fascist histories and memories. The book offers scholars and students valuable historical and comparative perspectives on minority studies, Jewish studies, borderland studies, and memory studies. It will appeal to those with an interest in the history of race and racism, fascism and anti-fascism, and Central and Eastern Europe.

Anti-Fascism and Ethnic Minorities: History and Memory in Central and Eastern Europe (Routledge Studies in Fascism and the Far Right)

by Anders Ahlbäck Kasper Braskén

Anti-Fascism and Ethnic Minorities explores how, and to what extent, fascist ultranationalism elicited an anti-fascist response among ethnic minority communities in Eastern and Central Europe. The edited volume analyses how identities related to class, ethnicity, gender and political ideologies were negotiated within and between minorities through confrontations with domestic and international fascism. By developing and expanding the study of Jewish anti-fascism and resistance to other minority responses, the book opens the field of anti-fascism studies for a broader comparative approach. The volume is thematically located in Central and Eastern Europe, cutting right across the continent from Finland in the North to Albania in the Southeast. The case studies in the fourteen research chapters are divided into five thematic sections, dealing with the issues of 1) minorities in borderlands and cross-border antifascism, 2) minorities navigating the ideological squeeze between communism and fascism, 3) the role of intellectuals in the defence of minority rights, 4) the anti-fascist resistance against fascist and Nazi occupation during World War II, as well as 5) the conflictual role ascribed to ethnicity in post-war memory politics and commemorations. The editors describe their intersectional approach to the analysis of ethnicity as a crucial category of analysis with regard to anti-fascist histories and memories. The book offers scholars and students valuable historical and comparative perspectives on minority studies, Jewish studies, borderland studies, and memory studies. It will appeal to those with an interest in the history of race and racism, fascism and anti-fascism, and Central and Eastern Europe.

Anti-Gender Mobilizations, Religion and Politics: An Italian Case Study (Routledge Studies in Religion and Politics)

by Massimo Prearo

This book presents an innovative exploration of the rise of political forces that have coalesced around the anti-gender movement, shaping strategies that advocate novel intersections of religion, politicization of gender and sexuality, and radical and populist rejuvenation of conservative ideologies.Through an extensive examination of activist discourses and mobilizations, the author offers a comprehensive political analysis of anti-gender mobilization, encompassing a multidimensional examination of religious, activist, and political opportunity structures. This study unveils three distinct facets characterizing these emerging (Catholic) movements: their relative autonomy from the Church (extra-ecclesiastical), their divergence from conventional religious frameworks (extra-Catholic), and their party-political alignment within the far-right area. The author proposes a new perspective on this burgeoning Catholic cause, contextualizing it within the transnational dynamics underscored by the existing literature. Particularly noteworthy is the scrutiny of internal reshaping within the Italian political Catholicism realm between the 1990s and the 2000s set against the backdrop of the dissolution of the Christian Democratic Party. Through the lens of the Italian landscape, this study extends its analysis to offer broader insights into the contemporary political uses of religion within democracies, along with contentious issues arising from gender and sexuality debates, transcending the confines of the Italian context.This book holds significant relevance for scholars and students engaged in gender studies, religious studies, social movements, populism, political science, political sociology, political history, and Italian studies.

Anti-Gender Mobilizations, Religion and Politics: An Italian Case Study (Routledge Studies in Religion and Politics)

by Massimo Prearo

This book presents an innovative exploration of the rise of political forces that have coalesced around the anti-gender movement, shaping strategies that advocate novel intersections of religion, politicization of gender and sexuality, and radical and populist rejuvenation of conservative ideologies.Through an extensive examination of activist discourses and mobilizations, the author offers a comprehensive political analysis of anti-gender mobilization, encompassing a multidimensional examination of religious, activist, and political opportunity structures. This study unveils three distinct facets characterizing these emerging (Catholic) movements: their relative autonomy from the Church (extra-ecclesiastical), their divergence from conventional religious frameworks (extra-Catholic), and their party-political alignment within the far-right area. The author proposes a new perspective on this burgeoning Catholic cause, contextualizing it within the transnational dynamics underscored by the existing literature. Particularly noteworthy is the scrutiny of internal reshaping within the Italian political Catholicism realm between the 1990s and the 2000s set against the backdrop of the dissolution of the Christian Democratic Party. Through the lens of the Italian landscape, this study extends its analysis to offer broader insights into the contemporary political uses of religion within democracies, along with contentious issues arising from gender and sexuality debates, transcending the confines of the Italian context.This book holds significant relevance for scholars and students engaged in gender studies, religious studies, social movements, populism, political science, political sociology, political history, and Italian studies.

Anti-Racism as Communism

by Paul Gomberg

In the United States there have been brilliant examples of anti-racist struggle-black soldiers in the Civil War, coal miners of Alabama, and especially the anti-racist working-class struggles led by the Communist Party. Yet racism persists: Jim Crow replaced racial slavery, and mass incarceration has replaced Jim Crow. Why? Paul Gomberg argues that racism is functional for capitalism, supplying low-wage, vulnerable labor and driving down conditions for all workers. How can anti-racists put an end to racist society? Gomberg argues for race-centered Marxism: anti-racism must lead working-class struggle, but racism will end only in a communist society that creates opportunity for all.

Anticlerical legacies: The deistic reception of Thomas Hobbes, <i>c.</i> 1670–1740 (Politics, Culture and Society in Early Modern Britain)

by Elad Carmel

Anticlerical legacies is the first comprehensive study of the reception of Thomas Hobbes’s ideas by the English deists and freethinkers in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.One of the most important English philosophers of all time, Hobbes’s theories have had an enduring impact on modern political and religious thought. This book offers a new perspective on the afterlife of Hobbes’s philosophy, focusing on the readers who were most sympathetic to his critical and radical ideas in the decades following his death. It investigates how Hobbes’s ideas shaped the English anticlerical campaign that peaked in the early eighteenth century and that was essential for the emergence of the early Enlightenment.The book shows that a large number of writers – Charles Blount, John Toland, Anthony Collins, Matthew Tindal, Thomas Morgan, and many others – were more Hobbesian than has ever been appreciated. Not only did they engage consistently with Hobbes’s ideas, they even invoked his authority at a time when doing so was highly unpopular. Most fundamentally, they carried on Hobbes’s war against the kingdom of darkness and used various Hobbesian weapons for their own war against priestcraft.Analysing the ways in which the deists and freethinkers developed their nuanced theories and conducted their heated dialogues with the orthodoxy, they emerge from this study as sophisticated and valuable theorists in their own right. The case of Hobbes and his successors demonstrates that anticlericalism was a key component of a much larger programme whose primary aim was to secure civil harmony, peace, and stability.

Anticlerical legacies: The deistic reception of Thomas Hobbes, <i>c.</i> 1670–1740 (Politics, Culture and Society in Early Modern Britain)

by Elad Carmel

Anticlerical legacies is the first comprehensive study of the reception of Thomas Hobbes’s ideas by the English deists and freethinkers in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.One of the most important English philosophers of all time, Hobbes’s theories have had an enduring impact on modern political and religious thought. This book offers a new perspective on the afterlife of Hobbes’s philosophy, focusing on the readers who were most sympathetic to his critical and radical ideas in the decades following his death. It investigates how Hobbes’s ideas shaped the English anticlerical campaign that peaked in the early eighteenth century and that was essential for the emergence of the early Enlightenment.The book shows that a large number of writers – Charles Blount, John Toland, Anthony Collins, Matthew Tindal, Thomas Morgan, and many others – were more Hobbesian than has ever been appreciated. Not only did they engage consistently with Hobbes’s ideas, they even invoked his authority at a time when doing so was highly unpopular. Most fundamentally, they carried on Hobbes’s war against the kingdom of darkness and used various Hobbesian weapons for their own war against priestcraft.Analysing the ways in which the deists and freethinkers developed their nuanced theories and conducted their heated dialogues with the orthodoxy, they emerge from this study as sophisticated and valuable theorists in their own right. The case of Hobbes and his successors demonstrates that anticlericalism was a key component of a much larger programme whose primary aim was to secure civil harmony, peace, and stability.

Applications of Heuristic Algorithms to Optimal Road Congestion Pricing

by Don Graham

Road congestion imposes major financial, social, and environmental costs. One solution is the operation of high-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes. This book outlines a method for dynamic pricing for HOT lanes based on non-linear programming (NLP) techniques, finite difference stochastic approximation, genetic algorithms, and simulated annealing stochastic algorithms, working within a cell transmission framework. The result is a solution for optimal flow and optimal toll to minimize total travel time and reduce congestion. ANOVA results are presented which show differences in the performance of the NLP algorithms in solving this problem and reducing travel time, and econometric forecasting methods utilizing vector autoregressive techniques are shown to successfully forecast demand. The book compares different optimization approaches It presents case studies from around the world, such as the I-95 Express HOT Lane in Miami, USA Applications of Heuristic Algorithms to Optimal Road Congestion Pricing is ideal for transportation practitioners and researchers.

Applications of Heuristic Algorithms to Optimal Road Congestion Pricing

by Don Graham

Road congestion imposes major financial, social, and environmental costs. One solution is the operation of high-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes. This book outlines a method for dynamic pricing for HOT lanes based on non-linear programming (NLP) techniques, finite difference stochastic approximation, genetic algorithms, and simulated annealing stochastic algorithms, working within a cell transmission framework. The result is a solution for optimal flow and optimal toll to minimize total travel time and reduce congestion. ANOVA results are presented which show differences in the performance of the NLP algorithms in solving this problem and reducing travel time, and econometric forecasting methods utilizing vector autoregressive techniques are shown to successfully forecast demand. The book compares different optimization approaches It presents case studies from around the world, such as the I-95 Express HOT Lane in Miami, USA Applications of Heuristic Algorithms to Optimal Road Congestion Pricing is ideal for transportation practitioners and researchers.

Applied Spirituality and Sustainable Development Policy

by Naresh Singh Divya Bhatnagar

The fundamental cause of many of the global challenges we are currently facing is our disconnection from ourselves, our fellow humans, other beings, and our planet. We have consistently failed to recognize the inner consciousness that dictates our relationships and decisions, an awareness that could be the first step toward humanity’s quest to set civilization on a more sustainable trajectory. Rooted in both secular spirituality and scientific evidence, Applied Spirituality and Sustainable Development Policy articulates a new model of sustainable development that is not just based on narrow definitions of GDP and economic growth, but that includes and even forefronts social and environmental development and inner transformation of human beings. Drawing on fields from physics to public policy, 18 pioneering authors discuss: A distillation of the spiritual gems at the core of the world’s major religions, including Indic and Buddhist philosophy Root-cause analyses of major sustainable development policy challenges like climate change Connections between spirituality and law, and how our legal frameworks can reflect these values The need for leaders to understand their spiritual nature in order to be authentic and transformative in their leadership styles Recognizing a global need for healing, this book rejuvenates how we think about development and nurture our innate spirituality, and challenges us to shift our collective mindset from one of having to one of being.

Applied Spirituality and Sustainable Development Policy

by NARESH SINGH AND DIVYA BHATNAGAR

The fundamental cause of many of the global challenges we are currently facing is our disconnection from ourselves, our fellow humans, other beings, and our planet. We have consistently failed to recognize the inner consciousness that dictates our relationships and decisions, an awareness that could be the first step toward humanity’s quest to set civilization on a more sustainable trajectory. Rooted in both secular spirituality and scientific evidence, Applied Spirituality and Sustainable Development Policy articulates a new model of sustainable development that is not just based on narrow definitions of GDP and economic growth, but that includes and even forefronts social and environmental development and inner transformation of human beings. Drawing on fields from physics to public policy, 18 pioneering authors discuss: A distillation of the spiritual gems at the core of the world’s major religions, including Indic and Buddhist philosophy Root-cause analyses of major sustainable development policy challenges like climate change Connections between spirituality and law, and how our legal frameworks can reflect these values The need for leaders to understand their spiritual nature in order to be authentic and transformative in their leadership styles Recognizing a global need for healing, this book rejuvenates how we think about development and nurture our innate spirituality, and challenges us to shift our collective mindset from one of having to one of being.

Approaches to Corporate Social Responsibility: Knowledge, Values, and Actions (Routledge Studies in Business Ethics)

by Stefan Markovic Adam Lindgreen Nikolina Koporcic Milena Micevski

Following recent growth of ethical consumerism, customers and other stakeholders increasingly pressure organizations to be socially responsible and minimize their negative impact on the environment. Accordingly, a plethora of firms have integrated corporate social responsibility (CSR) at the center of their business strategies and actions. Whilst this has resulted in many firms meeting their broader responsibilities toward society and the environment, some firms have used CSR in a manipulative and insincere way. As stakeholders become aware of such misuse of CSR, largely thanks to the rapid evolution of information technologies, they start to penalize firms by spreading negative word of mouth about them, and specifically about their CSR knowledge, values, and actions. Now, more than ever before, stakeholders are increasingly critical and cautious in their assessments of firms’ CSR knowledge, values, and actions. On this background, this edited volume sheds light on different internal and external perspectives spanning CSR knowledge, values, and actions. It shares theoretical, practical, and case-based insights on the broader topic and can be of interest to researchers, academics, practitioners, and advanced students in the fields of CSR and business ethics, knowledge management, strategy, and marketing.

Approaches to Corporate Social Responsibility: Knowledge, Values, and Actions (Routledge Studies in Business Ethics)

by Stefan Markovic Adam Lindgreen Nikolina Koporcic Milena Micevski

Following recent growth of ethical consumerism, customers and other stakeholders increasingly pressure organizations to be socially responsible and minimize their negative impact on the environment. Accordingly, a plethora of firms have integrated corporate social responsibility (CSR) at the center of their business strategies and actions. Whilst this has resulted in many firms meeting their broader responsibilities toward society and the environment, some firms have used CSR in a manipulative and insincere way. As stakeholders become aware of such misuse of CSR, largely thanks to the rapid evolution of information technologies, they start to penalize firms by spreading negative word of mouth about them, and specifically about their CSR knowledge, values, and actions. Now, more than ever before, stakeholders are increasingly critical and cautious in their assessments of firms’ CSR knowledge, values, and actions. On this background, this edited volume sheds light on different internal and external perspectives spanning CSR knowledge, values, and actions. It shares theoretical, practical, and case-based insights on the broader topic and can be of interest to researchers, academics, practitioners, and advanced students in the fields of CSR and business ethics, knowledge management, strategy, and marketing.

Arab-Israel Normalisation of Ties: Global Perspectives

by Najimdeen Bakare

This book focuses on rapprochement and normalisation between Israel and some Arab countries within the context of global and regional geopolitics, bringing together broader perspectives on transformations resulting from this. The analysis is rooted in a historical and cultural construction of the region as an Islamic sphere viewing Israel as a perpetuation of the Western colonial project in the region. It analyses how this normalisation must not be treated as a novel phenomenon, but as a reconstruction of the past and continuity in tradition geared at regional stability, signifying a wider shift in the structure of the global international system. The first section addresses the international perspectives of the changing dynamics through the lens of US domestic politics, disengagement plans, China’s increasing understanding of the geopolitics of the Abrahamic world. It equally pays enough attention to the attendant implications of this normalisation. The second section of the book explores the reflections of regional (state and non-state) actors, such as Turkey, Iran, Syria, Pakistan, and Hezbollah, and the catalysing effects of this normalisation within and beyond the region. The book is a rich resource for scholars of regional and international relations, in particular Middle East studies. It provides useful reading material for both undergraduate and graduate students of Political Science, think tanks, diplomats, and IR experts and policy analysts, who are desirous of having rich theoretical and empirical underpinnings of unfolding realities in the larger Middle East.

The Arab-Israeli Conflict: An Introduction and Documentary Reader

by Gregory S. Mahler

This textbook examines the diplomatic and historical setting within which the Arab-Israeli conflict has developed, and gives students the opportunity to study the Middle East peace process through a presentation of primary documents that have been instrumental in the development of the conflict from the mid-1800s through the present. This third edition includes an updated and expanded introduction and a significant expansion of the number of documents. The Arab-Israeli Conflict: includes an extensive introductory chapter which presents the history of the conflict and covers events from the nineteenth century to the present day presents 120 of the most important and widely cited documents in the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict in an edited form to highlight key elements incorporates a number of pedagogical aids, including the (edited) original documents, maps, and boxed sections that offer greater explanation of detailed topics presents "both sides" of the argument, allowing students to understand both the Israeli and the Palestinian positions on the issues This important textbook is an essential aid for courses on the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Middle East peace process, and will be an invaluable reference tool for all students of political science, Middle East studies and history.

The Arab-Israeli Conflict: An Introduction and Documentary Reader

by Gregory S. Mahler

This textbook examines the diplomatic and historical setting within which the Arab-Israeli conflict has developed, and gives students the opportunity to study the Middle East peace process through a presentation of primary documents that have been instrumental in the development of the conflict from the mid-1800s through the present. This third edition includes an updated and expanded introduction and a significant expansion of the number of documents. The Arab-Israeli Conflict: includes an extensive introductory chapter which presents the history of the conflict and covers events from the nineteenth century to the present day presents 120 of the most important and widely cited documents in the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict in an edited form to highlight key elements incorporates a number of pedagogical aids, including the (edited) original documents, maps, and boxed sections that offer greater explanation of detailed topics presents "both sides" of the argument, allowing students to understand both the Israeli and the Palestinian positions on the issues This important textbook is an essential aid for courses on the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Middle East peace process, and will be an invaluable reference tool for all students of political science, Middle East studies and history.

Architectural Exaptation: When Function Follows Form (Routledge Research in Architecture)

by Alessandro Melis Telmo Pievani Jose Antonio Lara-Hernandez

Architectural Exaptation: When Function Follows Form focuses on the significance and the originality of the study of exaptation. It presents exaptation as an opportunity to extend architectural design towards more sustainable approaches aimed at enforcing urban resilience.The use of exaptation’s definition in architecture supports the heuristic value of cross-disciplinary studies on biology and architecture, which seem even more relevant in times of global environmental crises. This book aims to make a critique of the pre-existing and extensive paternalistic literature. Exaptation will be described as a functional shift of a structure that already had a prior, but different, function. In architecture, a functional shift of a structure that already had a function may apply to forms of decorative elements embedded in architectural components, and to both change of function of tectonic elements and the change of use of an architectural space. The book is illustrated with examples from around the globe, including China, Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, the USA and the UK, and looks at different civilizations and diverse historical periods, ranging from the urban to the architectural scale. Such examples highlight the potential and latent human creative capacity to change the use and functions, something that cities and buildings could consider when facing disturbances. Exaptation is shown as an alternative narrative to the simplifications of evolutionary puritanism. It also offers an innovative perspective and presents an opportunity to re-think the manner in which we design and redesign our cities.This book will be of interest to architecture, planning, urban design and biology researchers and students.

Architectural Exaptation: When Function Follows Form (Routledge Research in Architecture)

by Alessandro Melis Telmo Pievani Jose Antonio Lara-Hernandez

Architectural Exaptation: When Function Follows Form focuses on the significance and the originality of the study of exaptation. It presents exaptation as an opportunity to extend architectural design towards more sustainable approaches aimed at enforcing urban resilience.The use of exaptation’s definition in architecture supports the heuristic value of cross-disciplinary studies on biology and architecture, which seem even more relevant in times of global environmental crises. This book aims to make a critique of the pre-existing and extensive paternalistic literature. Exaptation will be described as a functional shift of a structure that already had a prior, but different, function. In architecture, a functional shift of a structure that already had a function may apply to forms of decorative elements embedded in architectural components, and to both change of function of tectonic elements and the change of use of an architectural space. The book is illustrated with examples from around the globe, including China, Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, the USA and the UK, and looks at different civilizations and diverse historical periods, ranging from the urban to the architectural scale. Such examples highlight the potential and latent human creative capacity to change the use and functions, something that cities and buildings could consider when facing disturbances. Exaptation is shown as an alternative narrative to the simplifications of evolutionary puritanism. It also offers an innovative perspective and presents an opportunity to re-think the manner in which we design and redesign our cities.This book will be of interest to architecture, planning, urban design and biology researchers and students.

Architectures of Existence: Ethics, Aesthetics, Politics

by Chris Younès

Architectures of Existence proposes that philosophical thinking (ecosophical thinking) can inform the way we engage with our world and its inhabitants, as architects, designers and planners, but also as individuals, as people, and as a society. In Art et existence, Maldiney states: "For us, to inhabit is to exist". This book aims to unfold, extend, articulate and thicken this postulate by interweaving architecture, city, landscape, literature and philosophy. It takes up the synergistic lines of long-term research carried out from an ecosophical perspective. Such an attitude explores an art of existing in multiplicity, singularity and openness, manifesting the critical dimension through a reinterpretation of the knotting of the trajectories of time, humanity and its becoming. Insisting on what is between things and beings as well as on what is happening, regenerating, recycling, reviving, saving, diversifying, sparing, recreating, meditating: and so caring. These are all eco-rhythms of a different type between human and non-human, to consider ourselves in the world. In an era of uncertainty and climate threats, this book develops the margins of possibility offered by the subject of architecture. This book will be of interest to researchers and students of architecture, urban planning and philosophy.

Architectures of Existence: Ethics, Aesthetics, Politics

by Chris Younès

Architectures of Existence proposes that philosophical thinking (ecosophical thinking) can inform the way we engage with our world and its inhabitants, as architects, designers and planners, but also as individuals, as people, and as a society. In Art et existence, Maldiney states: "For us, to inhabit is to exist". This book aims to unfold, extend, articulate and thicken this postulate by interweaving architecture, city, landscape, literature and philosophy. It takes up the synergistic lines of long-term research carried out from an ecosophical perspective. Such an attitude explores an art of existing in multiplicity, singularity and openness, manifesting the critical dimension through a reinterpretation of the knotting of the trajectories of time, humanity and its becoming. Insisting on what is between things and beings as well as on what is happening, regenerating, recycling, reviving, saving, diversifying, sparing, recreating, meditating: and so caring. These are all eco-rhythms of a different type between human and non-human, to consider ourselves in the world. In an era of uncertainty and climate threats, this book develops the margins of possibility offered by the subject of architecture. This book will be of interest to researchers and students of architecture, urban planning and philosophy.

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