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From October to Brest-Litovsk

by Leon Trotsky

Trotsky's account of the revolutionary events in Russia in 1905. Trotsky's ideas form the basis of Trotskyism, a term coined as early as 1905 by his opponents in order to separate it from Marxism. Trotsky's ideas remain a major school of Marxist thought that is opposed to the theories of Stalinism.

On War

by Carl Von Clausewitz J. J. Graham

The nature and theory of war

One of Ours

by Willa Cather

The son of a prosperous farmer, Claude Wheeler's future is laid out for him as clear and monotonous as the Nebraska sky--a few semesters at the local Christian college followed by marriage and a lifetime spent worrying about the price of wheat. Many young men would be happy to find themselves in Claude's shoes, but his focus is on the horizon, and on the nagging sense that out there, past the farthest reaches of the Great Plains and beyond the boundaries of convention, his true destiny awaits. When the United States finally enters the war raging in Europe, Claude makes the first, and greatest, decision of his life: He answers the call.<P><P> Pulitzer Prize Winner

Greenmantle

by John Buchan

Aeroplane (UEB Contracted)

by Rnib

This is an image of an aeroplane viewed from above. There is a locator dot shown, which will be at the top left of the page when the image is the right way up. The front (nose) of the aeroplane is at the left of the page, and the back (tail) on the right. The cockpit, where the pilot sits, is near the nose of the aeroplane. To the right of this is the long main cabin for the passengers. On each side of the passenger cabin there is a long wing. Each wing has an engine on the front, and flaps to control the aeroplane at the rear. The smaller wings making up the tail also have flaps at the rear.

Aeroplane (UEB Uncontracted)

by Rnib

This is an image of an aeroplane viewed from above. There is a locator dot shown, which will be at the top left of the page when the image is the right way up. The front (nose) of the aeroplane is at the left of the page, and the back (tail) on the right. The cockpit, where the pilot sits, is near the nose of the aeroplane. To the right of this is the long main cabin for the passengers. On each side of the passenger cabin there is a long wing. Each wing has an engine on the front, and flaps to control the aeroplane at the rear. The smaller wings making up the tail also have flaps at the rear.

Jet Turbine engine cross section (UEB Contracted)


In these diagrams of a jet engine, there is a cross section view through the length of the engine at the top of the page and in the bottom right of the page, a front view of the engine intake. There is a locator dot shown, which will be at the top left of the page when the image is the right way up. On the left of the page air is forced into the engine by the compressor which has many fan blades. The compressed air is fed into the combustion chamber in the middle of the page. Fuel is injected into the engine through a port in the lower centre part of the combustion chamber. This is where combustion and gas expansion takes place. On the right of the page the exhaust exits past the turbine producing the thrust of the engine. The front view shows the circular opening of the engine with lots of fan blades arranged around the central hub like a huge fan.

Jet Turbine engine cross section (UEB Uncontracted)


In these diagrams of a jet engine, there is a cross section view through the length of the engine at the top of the page and in the bottom right of the page, a front view of the engine intake. There is a locator dot shown, which will be at the top left of the page when the image is the right way up. On the left of the page air is forced into the engine by the compressor which has many fan blades. The compressed air is fed into the combustion chamber in the middle of the page. Fuel is injected into the engine through a port in the lower centre part of the combustion chamber. This is where combustion and gas expansion takes place. On the right of the page the exhaust exits past the turbine producing the thrust of the engine. The front view shows the circular opening of the engine with lots of fan blades arranged around the central hub like a huge fan.

Rotary Engine (Large Print)

by Rnib Bookshare

In these diagrams of a rotary engine there are four stages shown, each separated by a dashed line. There is a locator dot shown, which will be at the top left of the page when the image is the right way up. In each diagram there are two ports to the left of the engine. The fuel port is to the top and the exhaust port to the bottom. In the centre of each diagram is the cylinder with a triangular rotor which has a small circular marker in one corner of the rotor. You will find this marker moves around in the different diagrams indicating the change of position of the rotor. In the very centre of each diagram is the driveshaft. To the lower right of each diagram is the spark plug. In the top left diagram the fuel intake stage is shown. The rotor rotates clockwise (with the top moving to the right). This movement sucks in the air and fuel mixture. In the top right of the page is the compression stage where the air and fuel mixture is squashed. In the bottom left of the page the compressed mixture is ignited by a spark from the spark plug. As the mixture burns it dramatically expands driving the rotor round. The final diagram in the bottom right of the page is where the rotor drives the expanded exhaust out. Note that all stages of the process actually take place simultaneously. This means that in this last diagram fuel will be sucked into the cylinder in the top left portion and compressed in the right portion at the same time as the exhaust is expelled in the bottom portion.

Internal combustion engine - Multipage image (Large Print)


These diagrams of an internal combustion engine are on two pages with two diagrams per page, separated by a vertical dotted line. There is a locator dot shown, which will be at the top left of the page when the image is the right way up. Each diagram is titled in the top left and shows a phase of the combustion engine cycle. In the top of each diagram from left to right there is an intake valve, a spark plug and an exhaust valve. In the centre of the image is the cylinder with the piston in its middle. This has a water cooling jacket to the left and right. The piston is connected by a connecting rod to the crankshaft and axle at the bottom of the image. Not all elements are labelled on every diagram. The valves and crankshaft are also in different positions. The crankshaft is continuously turning clockwise (with the top moving to the right) throughout all stages. In the first diagram fuel is being drawn into the cylinder through the open intake valve as the piston moves down. In the second diagram the intake valve has closed, the piston moves up and the air and fuel mixture is squashed. In the third diagram the air and fuel mixture has been ignited by a spark from the spark plug. The mixture burns and expands rapidly driving the piston down. In the last diagram the exhaust valve is open and the piston moves up driving the exhaust out of the cylinder. There are usually at least two cylinders which comprise the whole engine. They all drive the same crankshaft but are phased so that, for example, while one cylinder will be sucking air and fuel in, another will be burning the compressed mixture and generating the power.

Internal combustion engine - Multipage image (UEB Contracted)


These diagrams of an internal combustion engine are on two pages with two diagrams per page, separated by a vertical dotted line. There is a locator dot shown, which will be at the top left of the page when the image is the right way up. Each diagram is titled in the top left and shows a phase of the combustion engine cycle. In the top of each diagram from left to right there is an intake valve, a spark plug and an exhaust valve. In the centre of the image is the cylinder with the piston in its middle. This has a water cooling jacket to the left and right. The piston is connected by a connecting rod to the crankshaft and axle at the bottom of the image. Not all elements are labelled on every diagram. The valves and crankshaft are also in different positions. The crankshaft is continuously turning clockwise (with the top moving to the right) throughout all stages. In the first diagram fuel is being drawn into the cylinder through the open intake valve as the piston moves down. In the second diagram the intake valve has closed, the piston moves up and the air and fuel mixture is squashed. In the third diagram the air and fuel mixture has been ignited by a spark from the spark plug. The mixture burns and expands rapidly driving the piston down. In the last diagram the exhaust valve is open and the piston moves up driving the exhaust out of the cylinder. There are usually at least two cylinders which comprise the whole engine. They all drive the same crankshaft but are phased so that, for example, while one cylinder will be sucking air and fuel in, another will be burning the compressed mixture and generating the power.

Internal combustion engine - Multipage image (UEB Uncontracted)


These diagrams of an internal combustion engine are on two pages with two diagrams per page, separated by a vertical dotted line. There is a locator dot shown, which will be at the top left of the page when the image is the right way up. Each diagram is titled in the top left and shows a phase of the combustion engine cycle. In the top of each diagram from left to right there is an intake valve, a spark plug and an exhaust valve. In the centre of the image is the cylinder with the piston in its middle. This has a water cooling jacket to the left and right. The piston is connected by a connecting rod to the crankshaft and axle at the bottom of the image. Not all elements are labelled on every diagram. The valves and crankshaft are also in different positions. The crankshaft is continuously turning clockwise (with the top moving to the right) throughout all stages. In the first diagram fuel is being drawn into the cylinder through the open intake valve as the piston moves down. In the second diagram the intake valve has closed, the piston moves up and the air and fuel mixture is squashed. In the third diagram the air and fuel mixture has been ignited by a spark from the spark plug. The mixture burns and expands rapidly driving the piston down. In the last diagram the exhaust valve is open and the piston moves up driving the exhaust out of the cylinder. There are usually at least two cylinders which comprise the whole engine. They all drive the same crankshaft but are phased so that, for example, while one cylinder will be sucking air and fuel in, another will be burning the compressed mixture and generating the power.

Electric Motor (Large Print)


In these diagrams of an electric motor, there is an end view on the left of the page and a top view on the right of the page, separated by a vertical dashed line. There is a locator dot shown, which will be at the top left of the page when the image is the right way up. On the end view there is a permanent magnet of south polarity on the left of the page. To the right of this is a large circle which has four electro-magnets around its outer edge. Inside the circle are some thick lines which represent electrical wires that connect the magnets in pairs. Only the wiring connecting one pair of electro-magnets is shown. In the centre is the commutator with the axle in its centre. To the bottom left and upper right of the commutator are the electrical brushes with wires going to the battery (which is not shown). On the far right of the page is a permanent magnet of north polarity. The top view on the right of the page shows the commutator in the bottom right of the page with a single brush. Up from this the electro-magnets are shown. In the end view the permanent magnets to the left and right of the page remain static. The brushes and the wires to the battery also remain static. The electro-magnets, their wiring and the commutator rotate on the axle. The image shows the moment when the positive brush, seen to the upper right of the commutator, supplies electricity to a quadrant of the commutator. This quadrant can then supply electricity via the upper vertical wire to the electro-magnet at the top of the page. The current makes it magnetic with south polarity. This results in the electro-magnet being attracted to and rotating towards the permanent north magnet on the right of the page. The electricity from the charged south electro-magnet flows onwards to the electro-magnet on the opposite side of the diagram, at the bottom of the page, via the longer curved wire. The lower electro-magnet becomes magnetic with north polarity because of the direction of the wiring. This results in the electro-magnet rotating towards the permanent south magnet on the left of the page. The north polarity electro-magnet is currently connected via a vertical wire to a different quadrant of the commutator. As the negative brush contacts this the current can flow back to the battery thus completing the circuit. When this electro-magnet reaches the upper position it will be supplied with electricity again but flowing in the opposite direction so it will become an electro-magnet with south polarity. When the motor is running the pairs of electro-magnets are constantly being turned on and off by the commutator.

Electric Motor (UEB Contracted)


In these diagrams of an electric motor, there is an end view on the left of the page and a top view on the right of the page, separated by a vertical dashed line. There is a locator dot shown, which will be at the top left of the page when the image is the right way up. On the end view there is a permanent magnet of south polarity on the left of the page. To the right of this is a large circle which has four electro-magnets around its outer edge. Inside the circle are some thick lines which represent electrical wires that connect the magnets in pairs. Only the wiring connecting one pair of electro-magnets is shown. In the centre is the commutator with the axle in its centre. To the bottom left and upper right of the commutator are the electrical brushes with wires going to the battery (which is not shown). On the far right of the page is a permanent magnet of north polarity. The top view on the right of the page shows the commutator in the bottom right of the page with a single brush. Up from this the electro-magnets are shown. In the end view the permanent magnets to the left and right of the page remain static. The brushes and the wires to the battery also remain static. The electro-magnets, their wiring and the commutator rotate on the axle. The image shows the moment when the positive brush, seen to the upper right of the commutator, supplies electricity to a quadrant of the commutator. This quadrant can then supply electricity via the upper vertical wire to the electro-magnet at the top of the page. The current makes it magnetic with south polarity. This results in the electro-magnet being attracted to and rotating towards the permanent north magnet on the right of the page. The electricity from the charged south electro-magnet flows onwards to the electro-magnet on the opposite side of the diagram, at the bottom of the page, via the longer curved wire. The lower electro-magnet becomes magnetic with north polarity because of the direction of the wiring. This results in the electro-magnet rotating towards the permanent south magnet on the left of the page. The north polarity electro-magnet is currently connected via a vertical wire to a different quadrant of the commutator. As the negative brush contacts this the current can flow back to the battery thus completing the circuit. When this electro-magnet reaches the upper position it will be supplied with electricity again but flowing in the opposite direction so it will become an electro-magnet with south polarity. When the motor is running the pairs of electro-magnets are constantly being turned on and off by the commutator.

Electric Motor (UEB Uncontracted)


In these diagrams of an electric motor, there is an end view on the left of the page and a top view on the right of the page, separated by a vertical dashed line. There is a locator dot shown, which will be at the top left of the page when the image is the right way up. On the end view there is a permanent magnet of south polarity on the left of the page. To the right of this is a large circle which has four electro-magnets around its outer edge. Inside the circle are some thick lines which represent electrical wires that connect the magnets in pairs. Only the wiring connecting one pair of electro-magnets is shown. In the centre is the commutator with the axle in its centre. To the bottom left and upper right of the commutator are the electrical brushes with wires going to the battery (which is not shown). On the far right of the page is a permanent magnet of north polarity. The top view on the right of the page shows the commutator in the bottom right of the page with a single brush. Up from this the electro-magnets are shown. In the end view the permanent magnets to the left and right of the page remain static. The brushes and the wires to the battery also remain static. The electro-magnets, their wiring and the commutator rotate on the axle. The image shows the moment when the positive brush, seen to the upper right of the commutator, supplies electricity to a quadrant of the commutator. This quadrant can then supply electricity via the upper vertical wire to the electro-magnet at the top of the page. The current makes it magnetic with south polarity. This results in the electro-magnet being attracted to and rotating towards the permanent north magnet on the right of the page. The electricity from the charged south electro-magnet flows onwards to the electro-magnet on the opposite side of the diagram, at the bottom of the page, via the longer curved wire. The lower electro-magnet becomes magnetic with north polarity because of the direction of the wiring. This results in the electro-magnet rotating towards the permanent south magnet on the left of the page. The north polarity electro-magnet is currently connected via a vertical wire to a different quadrant of the commutator. As the negative brush contacts this the current can flow back to the battery thus completing the circuit. When this electro-magnet reaches the upper position it will be supplied with electricity again but flowing in the opposite direction so it will become an electro-magnet with south polarity. When the motor is running the pairs of electro-magnets are constantly being turned on and off by the commutator.

Steam Engine - Multipage image (Large Print)


These diagrams of a steam engine are on two pages with two diagrams on the first page separated by a horizontal dashed line and one diagram on the second page. There is a locator dot shown, which will be at the top left of the page when the image is the right way up. Each diagram is titled in the top left and shows a phase of the steam engine cycle. In each diagram there is a crankshaft and axle on the left of the image. This is linked by the crosshead guide to the piston inside the cylinder on the right of the image. Sitting on the crosshead guide is the crosshead. This is linked by the control rod obliquely right up to the valve rod. The valve rod goes horizontally right through the top of the cylinder. Immediately down from the centre of the valve rod is the valve itself and down from this is steam exhaust vent (steam out). Steam is forced under pressure continuously into the steam inlet at the top right of the diagram. The crankshaft rotates anti-clockwise (with the top moving to the left) throughout all stages. In the first diagram steam flows around the valve rod and into the left side of the cylinder. This pushes the piston to the right starting the forward stroke. In the second diagram, as the stroke approaches completion, the crosshead catches the end of the control rod. In the third diagram the control rod pivots, pulling the valve rod sharply to the left. This moves the valve to the left as well. The steam now flows around the valve rod and into the right side of the cylinder. This starts the reverse stroke with the piston moving left. As it moves left it forces the low pressure exhaust steam out.

Steam Engine - Multipage image (UEB Contracted)


These diagrams of a steam engine are on two pages with two diagrams on the first page separated by a horizontal dashed line and one diagram on the second page. There is a locator dot shown, which will be at the top left of the page when the image is the right way up. Each diagram is titled in the top left and shows a phase of the steam engine cycle. In each diagram there is a crankshaft and axle on the left of the image. This is linked by the crosshead guide to the piston inside the cylinder on the right of the image. Sitting on the crosshead guide is the crosshead. This is linked by the control rod obliquely right up to the valve rod. The valve rod goes horizontally right through the top of the cylinder. Immediately down from the centre of the valve rod is the valve itself and down from this is steam exhaust vent (steam out). Steam is forced under pressure continuously into the steam inlet at the top right of the diagram. The crankshaft rotates anti-clockwise (with the top moving to the left) throughout all stages. In the first diagram steam flows around the valve rod and into the left side of the cylinder. This pushes the piston to the right starting the forward stroke. In the second diagram, as the stroke approaches completion, the crosshead catches the end of the control rod. In the third diagram the control rod pivots, pulling the valve rod sharply to the left. This moves the valve to the left as well. The steam now flows around the valve rod and into the right side of the cylinder. This starts the reverse stroke with the piston moving left. As it moves left it forces the low pressure exhaust steam out.

Steam Engine - Multipage image (UEB Uncontracted)


These diagrams of a steam engine are on two pages with two diagrams on the first page separated by a horizontal dashed line and one diagram on the second page. There is a locator dot shown, which will be at the top left of the page when the image is the right way up. Each diagram is titled in the top left and shows a phase of the steam engine cycle. In each diagram there is a crankshaft and axle on the left of the image. This is linked by the crosshead guide to the piston inside the cylinder on the right of the image. Sitting on the crosshead guide is the crosshead. This is linked by the control rod obliquely right up to the valve rod. The valve rod goes horizontally right through the top of the cylinder. Immediately down from the centre of the valve rod is the valve itself and down from this is steam exhaust vent (steam out). Steam is forced under pressure continuously into the steam inlet at the top right of the diagram. The crankshaft rotates anti-clockwise (with the top moving to the left) throughout all stages. In the first diagram steam flows around the valve rod and into the left side of the cylinder. This pushes the piston to the right starting the forward stroke. In the second diagram, as the stroke approaches completion, the crosshead catches the end of the control rod. In the third diagram the control rod pivots, pulling the valve rod sharply to the left. This moves the valve to the left as well. The steam now flows around the valve rod and into the right side of the cylinder. This starts the reverse stroke with the piston moving left. As it moves left it forces the low pressure exhaust steam out.

Air-sea rescue helicopter (Large Print)

by Rnib

The helicopter is viewed from the side with only one of its main wheels showing at the lower centre of the page, and with a tail wheel to its right. There is a locator dot shown, which will be at the top left of the page when the image is the right way up. The cockpit at the front is on the left of the page and the tail on the right. The long rotor blades stretch from the left of the page to the right, above the helicopter body. On the left of the body there are three cockpit windows, up from these is the engine grill. Up from the main wheel one of the helicopter's floats is shown and two more windows. To the right of these is the open hatch through which people are winched during rescue missions. Right from the hatch is another window. Above the hatch and single window is the radar dome on the top edge of the helicopter. At the far right of the page is the six bladed tail rotor.

Air-sea rescue helicopter (UEB Contracted)

by Rnib

The helicopter is viewed from the side with only one of its main wheels showing at the lower centre of the page, and with a tail wheel to its right. There is a locator dot shown, which will be at the top left of the page when the image is the right way up. The cockpit at the front is on the left of the page and the tail on the right. The long rotor blades stretch from the left of the page to the right, above the helicopter body. On the left of the body there are three cockpit windows, up from these is the engine grill. Up from the main wheel one of the helicopter's floats is shown and two more windows. To the right of these is the open hatch through which people are winched during rescue missions. Right from the hatch is another window. Above the hatch and single window is the radar dome on the top edge of the helicopter. At the far right of the page is the six bladed tail rotor.

Air-sea rescue helicopter (UEB Uncontracted)

by Rnib

The helicopter is viewed from the side with only one of its main wheels showing at the lower centre of the page, and with a tail wheel to its right. There is a locator dot shown, which will be at the top left of the page when the image is the right way up. The cockpit at the front is on the left of the page and the tail on the right. The long rotor blades stretch from the left of the page to the right, above the helicopter body. On the left of the body there are three cockpit windows, up from these is the engine grill. Up from the main wheel one of the helicopter's floats is shown and two more windows. To the right of these is the open hatch through which people are winched during rescue missions. Right from the hatch is another window. Above the hatch and single window is the radar dome on the top edge of the helicopter. At the far right of the page is the six bladed tail rotor.

Short Belfast RAF Aircraft (Large Print)

by Rnib Bookshare

This is an image of an aircraft seen from above. There is a locator dot shown, which will be at the top left of the page when the image is the correct way up. The image is in the centre and a scale in metres on the left of the page. The aircrafts nose is in the top centre and the tail in the bottom centre of the page. The fuselage goes up and down the middle of the page. At the top of the page is a re-fuelling nozzle which crosses the cockpit and sticks out in front of the aircraft. The cockpit is shown as a curved window near the nose. The wings go out to the left and right. Sticking out from the front edge of the wing there are two engines with propellers on each wing to the left and right of the fuselage. The bottom edge of the wing has three flaps on each side and the tail wing has two flaps on each side. These are the ailerons used to manoeuvre the aircraft when it is flying. The tailplane has a vertical tail in the middle. The aircraft is coloured a pale grey. The textures on the tactile image reflect structure not colour. There is a different texture for the cockpit, wings, fuselage and engines.

Meter and Oscilloscope symbols (UEB Uncontracted)

by Rnib Bookshare

This page shows IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) symbols for a voltmeter, an ammeter, a galvanometer, an ohmmeter, and an oscilloscope. There is a locator dot shown, which will be at the top left of the page when the image is the correct way up. The symbols are on the left of the page and the descriptive labels are on the right.

Meter and Oscilloscope symbols (UEB Contracted)

by Rnib Bookshare

This page shows IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) symbols for a voltmeter, an ammeter, a galvanometer, an ohmmeter, and an oscilloscope. There is a locator dot shown, which will be at the top left of the page when the image is the correct way up. The symbols are on the left of the page and the descriptive labels are on the right.

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