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Showing 1 through 25 of 7,239 results

الرسالة المستطرقة فى علوم الحديث

by محمد بن جعفر الكتاني

وقد قال ‏(‏ابن حجر‏)‏ في أول ‏(‏مقدمة فتح الباري‏)‏ ما نصه‏:‏ اعلم أن آثار النبي ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ لم تكن في عصر الصحابة وكبار التابعين مدونة في الجوامع، ولا مرتبه، لأمرين‏:‏ أحدهما‏:‏ أنهم كانوا في ابتداء الحال قد نهوا عن ذلك، كما ثبت في ‏(‏صحيح مسلم‏)‏، خشية أن يختلط بعض ذلك بالقرآن العظيم‏.‏ وثانيهما‏:‏ لسعة حفظهم، وسيلان أذهانهم، ولأن أكثرهم كانوا لا يعرفون الكتابة‏.‏ ثم حدث في أواخر عصر التابعين تدوين الآثار، وتبويب الأخبار، لمّا انتشر العلماء في الأمصار، وكثر الابتداع من الخوارج والروافض ومنكري الأقدار، واتسع الخرق على الراقع، وكاد أن يلتبس الباطل بالحق‏.‏ فأول من جمع في ذلك ‏(‏الربيع بن صبيح‏)‏ ‏(‏وسعيد ابن أبي عروبة‏)‏ وغيرهما‏.‏ دونت أحكام الحديث في منتصف القرن الثاني وكانوا يصنفون كل باب على حده، إلى أن قام كبار أهل الطبقة الثانية في منتصف القرن ‏(‏ص 6‏)‏ الثاني، فدونوا الأحكام‏.‏ فصنف ‏(‏الإمام مالك‏)‏ ‏(‏الموطأ‏)‏ بالمدينة، وتوخى فيه القوي من حديث أهل الحجاز، ومزجه بأقوال الصحابة، وفتاوى التابعين، ومن بعدهم‏.‏ أول من صنف الحديث بمكة ابن جريج وصنف ‏(‏أبو محمد عبد الملك بن عبد العزيز بن جريج‏)‏ بمكة، ‏(‏وأبو عمرو عبد الرحمن بن عمرو الأوزاعي‏)‏ بالشام، ‏(‏وأبو عبد الله سفيان بن سعيد الثوري‏)‏ بالكوفة، ‏(‏وأبو سلمة حماد بن سلمة بن دينار‏)‏ بالبصرة‏.‏ ثم تلاهم كثير من أهل عصرهم في النسج على منوالهم، إلى أن رأى بعض الأئمة منهم، أن يفرد حديث النبي ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ خاصة، وذلك على رأس المائتين‏.‏ فصنف ‏(‏عبيد الله بن موسى العبسي الكوفي‏)‏ مسندا، وصنف ‏(‏مسدد بن مسرهد البصري‏)‏ مسندا، وصنف ‏(‏أسد بن موسى الأموي‏)‏ مسندا، وصنف ‏(‏نُعيم بن حماد الخزاعي‏)‏ نزيل مصر مسندا، ثم اقتفى الأئمة بعد ذلك أثرهم، فقلَّ إمام من الحفاظ إلا وصنف حديثه على المسانيد، ‏(‏كالإمام أحمد بن حنبل‏)‏ ‏(‏و إسحاق بن راهويه‏)‏ ‏(‏وعثمان بن أبي شيبة‏)‏ وغيرهم من النبلاء‏.‏ ومنهم من صنف على الأبواب والمسانيد معا ‏(‏كأبي بكر بن أبي شيبة‏)‏ اهـ‏.‏ وعبارته في ‏(‏إرشاد الساري‏)‏ قال‏:‏ منهم من رتب على المسانيد ‏(‏كالإمام أحمد بن حنبل‏)‏ ‏(‏و إسحاق بن راهويه‏)‏ ‏(‏وأبي بكر ابن أبي شيبة‏)‏ ‏(‏وأحمد بن منيع‏)‏ ‏(‏وأبي خيثمة‏)‏ ‏(‏والحسن بن سفيان‏)‏ ‏(‏وأبي بكر البزار‏)‏ وغيرهم‏.‏ ومنهم من رتب على العلل‏:‏ بأن يجمع في كل متن طرقه، واختلاف الرواة فيه، بحيث يتضح إرسال ما يكون متصلا، أو وقف ما يكون مرفوعا، أو غير ذلك‏.‏ ومنهم من رتب على الأبواب الفقهية، وغيرها، ونوّعه أنواعا، وجمع ما ورد في كل نوع، وفي كل حكم إثباتا ونفيا، في باب فباب، بحيث يتميز ما يدخل في الصوم مثلا عما يتعلق بالصلاة‏.‏ وأهل هذه الطريقة منهم من تقيد بالصحيح ‏(‏كالشيخين‏)‏ وغيرهما، ومنهم من لم يتقيد بذلك كباقي الكتب الستة، وكان أول من صنف في الصحيح ‏(‏محمد بن إسماعيل البخاري‏)‏‏.‏ ومنهم المقتصر على ‏(‏ص 7‏)‏ الأحاديث المتضمنة للترغيب والترهيب، ومنهم من حذف الإسناد واقتصر على المتن فقط، ‏(‏كالبغوي‏)‏ في ‏(‏مصابيحه‏)‏ ‏(‏واللؤلؤي‏)‏ في ‏(‏مشكاته‏)‏ اهـ‏.‏

الفصل في الملل و الآهواء و النحل

by ابن حزم

إن كثيراً من الناس كتبوا في افتراق الناس في دياناتهم ومقالاتهم كتباً كثيرة جداً فبعض أطال وأسهب وأكثر وهجر واستعمل الأغاليط والشغب فكان ذلك شاغلاً عن الفهم قاطعاً دون العلم وبعض حذف وقصر وقلل واختصر واضرب عن كثير من قوي معارضات أصحاب المقالات فكان في ذلك غير منصف لنفسه في أن يرضى لها بالغبن في الإبانة وظالماً لخصمه في أن لم يوفه حق اعتراضه وباخساً حق من قرأ كتابه إذ لم يغنه عن غيره وكلهم إلا تحلة القسم عقد كلامه تعقيداً يتعذر فهمه على كثير من أهل الفهم وحلق على المعاني من بعد حتى صار ينسي آخر كلامه أوله وأكثر هذا منهم ستائر دون فساد معانيهم فكان هذا منهم غير محمود في عاجله وآجله.

The GCHQ Puzzle Book II

by Gchq

Pre-order the long-awaited and brain-busting sequel from the UK's finest codebreakers and puzzle-solvers at GCHQ. With their first bestselling book, The GCHQ Puzzle Book, the UK's intelligence and security experts tested us with puzzles, codes and real-life entrance tests from their archives. Now, they are back with a new collection of head-scratching, mind-boggling and brain-bending puzzles that will leave you pondering for hours. For those who often found themselves stumped with the first book, there will be even more starter puzzles to get those brains warmed up. Puzzle aficionados needn't worry though, as there will also be an 'Even Harder' section to test everyone to their limits. Not only that, but in celebration of GCHQ's centenary, the puzzles in this new book will sit alongside stories, facts and photos from the organisation's first 100 years at the heart of the nation's security. From the Government Code & Cipher School, to Bletchley Park, through to protecting against cyberattacks, the security of our country is in the hands of GCHQ. With this book, you'll get exclusive snapshots into the organisation that keeps us all safe.

Consistency of the Continuum Hypothesis. (AM-3), Volume 3 (PDF)

by Kurt Gödel

Kurt Gödel, mathematician and logician, was one of the most influential thinkers of the twentieth century. Gödel fled Nazi Germany, fearing for his Jewish wife and fed up with Nazi interference in the affairs of the mathematics institute at the University of Göttingen. In 1933 he settled at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, where he joined the group of world-famous mathematicians who made up its original faculty. His 1940 book, better known by its short title, The Consistency of the Continuum Hypothesis, is a classic of modern mathematics. The continuum hypothesis, introduced by mathematician George Cantor in 1877, states that there is no set of numbers between the integers and real numbers. It was later included as the first of mathematician David Hilbert's twenty-three unsolved math problems, famously delivered as a manifesto to the field of mathematics at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris in 1900. In The Consistency of the Continuum Hypothesis Gödel set forth his proof for this problem. In 1999, Time magazine ranked him higher than fellow scientists Edwin Hubble, Enrico Fermi, John Maynard Keynes, James Watson, Francis Crick, and Jonas Salk. He is most renowned for his proof in 1931 of the 'incompleteness theorem,' in which he demonstrated that there are problems that cannot be solved by any set of rules or procedures. His proof wrought fruitful havoc in mathematics, logic, and beyond.

Convergence and Uniformity in Topology. (AM-2), Volume 2 (PDF)

by John W. Tukey

The description for this book, Convergence and Uniformity in Topology. (AM-2), Volume 2, will be forthcoming.

An Introduction to Linear Transformations in Hilbert Space. (AM-4), Volume 4 (PDF)

by Francis Joseph Murray

The description for this book, An Introduction to Linear Transformations in Hilbert Space. (AM-4), Volume 4, will be forthcoming.

The Two-Valued Iterative Systems of Mathematical Logic. (AM-5), Volume 5

by Emil L. Post

The description for this book, The Two-Valued Iterative Systems of Mathematical Logic. (AM-5), Volume 5, will be forthcoming.

Degree of Approximation by Polynomials in the Complex Domain. (AM-9), Volume 9 (PDF)

by Walter Edwin Sewell

The description for this book, Degree of Approximation by Polynomials in the Complex Domain. (AM-9), Volume 9, will be forthcoming.

Metric Methods of Finsler Spaces and in the Foundations of Geometry. (AM-8)

by Herbert Busemann

The description for this book, Metric Methods of Finsler Spaces and in the Foundations of Geometry. (AM-8), will be forthcoming.

Topics in Topology. (AM-10), Volume 10

by Solomon Lefschetz

Solomon Lefschetz pioneered the field of topology--the study of the properties of many�sided figures and their ability to deform, twist, and stretch without changing their shape. According to Lefschetz, "If it's just turning the crank, it's algebra, but if it's got an idea in it, it's topology." The very word topology comes from the title of an earlier Lefschetz monograph published in 1920. In Topics in Topology Lefschetz developed a more in-depth introduction to the field, providing authoritative explanations of what would today be considered the basic tools of algebraic topology. Lefschetz moved to the United States from France in 1905 at the age of twenty-one to find employment opportunities not available to him as a Jew in France. He worked at Westinghouse Electric Company in Pittsburgh and there suffered a horrible laboratory accident, losing both hands and forearms. He continued to work for Westinghouse, teaching mathematics, and went on to earn a Ph.D. and to pursue an academic career in mathematics. When he joined the mathematics faculty at Princeton University, he became one of its first Jewish faculty members in any discipline. He was immensely popular, and his memory continues to elicit admiring anecdotes. Editor of Princeton University Press's Annals of Mathematics from 1928 to 1958, Lefschetz built it into a world-class scholarly journal. He published another book, Lectures on Differential Equations, with Princeton in 1946.

Meromorphic Functions and Analytic Curves. (AM-12)

by Hermann Weyl

The description for this book, Meromorphic Functions and Analytic Curves. (AM-12), will be forthcoming.

Finite Dimensional Vector Spaces. (AM-7), Volume 7

by Paul R. Halmos

As a newly minted Ph.D., Paul Halmos came to the Institute for Advanced Study in 1938--even though he did not have a fellowship--to study among the many giants of mathematics who had recently joined the faculty. He eventually became John von Neumann's research assistant, and it was one of von Neumann's inspiring lectures that spurred Halmos to write Finite Dimensional Vector Spaces. The book brought him instant fame as an expositor of mathematics. Finite Dimensional Vector Spaces combines algebra and geometry to discuss the three-dimensional area where vectors can be plotted. The book broke ground as the first formal introduction to linear algebra, a branch of modern mathematics that studies vectors and vector spaces. The book continues to exert its influence sixty years after publication, as linear algebra is now widely used, not only in mathematics but also in the natural and social sciences, for studying such subjects as weather problems, traffic flow, electronic circuits, and population genetics. In 1983 Halmos received the coveted Steele Prize for exposition from the American Mathematical Society for "his many graduate texts in mathematics dealing with finite dimensional vector spaces, measure theory, ergodic theory, and Hilbert space."

Probleme General de la Stabilite du Mouvement. (AM-17), Volume 17

by Alexandr Mikhailovich Liapounoff

The description for this book, Probleme General de la Stabilite du Mouvement. (AM-17), Volume 17, will be forthcoming.

Topological Methods in the Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable. (AM-15), Volume 15

by Marston Morse

The description for this book, Topological Methods in the Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable. (AM-15), Volume 15, will be forthcoming.

An Essay Toward a Unified Theory of Special Functions. (AM-18), Volume 18 (PDF)

by Clifford Truesdell

The description for this book, An Essay Toward a Unified Theory of Special Functions. (AM-18), Volume 18, will be forthcoming.

Contributions to Fourier Analysis. (AM-25) (PDF)

by Antoni Zygmund W. Transue

The description for this book, Contributions to Fourier Analysis. (AM-25), will be forthcoming.

Contributions to the Theory of Nonlinear Oscillations (AM-20), Volume I (PDF)

by Solomon Lefschetz

The description for this book, Contributions to the Theory of Nonlinear Oscillations (AM-20), Volume I, will be forthcoming.

Fourier Transforms. (AM-19), Volume 19

by Salomon Bochner Komaravolu Chandrasekharan

The description for this book, Fourier Transforms. (AM-19), Volume 19, will be forthcoming.

Functional Operators (AM-21), Volume 1: Measures and Integrals. (AM-21)

by John Von Neumann

Geometry of orthogonal spaces.

Introduction to Non-Linear Mechanics. (AM-11), Volume 11

by Nikolai Mitrofanovich Krylov Nikolai Nikolaevich Bogoliubov

The description for this book, Introduction to Non-Linear Mechanics. (AM-11), Volume 11, will be forthcoming.

Transcendental Numbers. (AM-16)

by Carl Ludwig Siegel

The description for this book, Transcendental Numbers. (AM-16), will be forthcoming.

Contributions to the Theory of Games (AM-24), Volume I (PDF)

by Harold William Kuhn Albert William Tucker

The description for this book, Contributions to the Theory of Games (AM-24), Volume I, will be forthcoming.

Existence Theorems in Partial Differential Equations. (AM-23), Volume 23

by Dorothy L. Bernstein

The description for this book, Existence Theorems in Partial Differential Equations. (AM-23), Volume 23, will be forthcoming.

Functional Operators (AM-22), Volume 2: The Geometry of Orthogonal Spaces. (AM-22)

by John Von Neumann

Measures and integrals

Isoperimetric Inequalities in Mathematical Physics. (AM-27), Volume 27

by G. Polya G. Szegö

The description for this book, Isoperimetric Inequalities in Mathematical Physics. (AM-27), Volume 27, will be forthcoming.

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