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القانون في الطب 2

by ابن سينا

اعلم أن المرارة كيس معلّق من الكبد إلى ناحية المعدة من طبقة واحدة عصبانية ولها ضمّ إلى الكبد ومجرى فيه يجذب الخلط الرقيق الموافق لها والمرار الأصفر ويتصل هذا المجرى بنفس الكبد والعروق التي فيها يتكون الدم وله هناك شعب كثيرة غائصة وإن كان مدخل عمودها من التقعير والفم ومجرى إلى ناحية المعدة‏.‏ والأمعاء ترسل فيه إلى ناحيتهما فضل الصفراء على ما ذكرناه في الكتاب الأول‏.‏ وهذا المجرى يتصل أكثر شعبه بالاثني عشري وربما اتصل شيء صغير منه بأسفل المعدة وربما وقع الأمر بالضد فصار الأكبر المتصل بالوعاء الأغلظ إلى أسفل المعدة والأصغر إلى الاثني عشري‏.‏ وفي أكثر الناس هو مجرى واحد متصل بالاثني عشري‏.‏ وأما مدخل الأنبوبة المصاصة للمرارة في المرارة فقريب من مدخل أنبوبة المثانة في المثانة‏.‏ ومن عادة الأطباء الأقدمين أن يسموا المرار الكيس الأصغر كما أنه من عادتهم أن يسموا المثانة الكيس الأكبر ومن المنافع في خلقة المرارة تنقية الكبد من الفضل الرغوي وأيضاً تسخينها كالوقود تحت القدر وأيضاً تلطيف الدم وتحليل الفضول وأيضاً تحريك البراز وتنظيف الأمعاء وشدّ ما يسترخي من العضل حوله وإنما لم يخلق في الأكثر للمرارة سبيل إلى المعدة لتغسل رطوباتها بالمرة كما تغسل بها في رطوبات الأمعاء لأن المعدة تتأذى بذلك وتغثّي ويفسد الهضم فيها بما يخالط الغذاء من خلط رديء ويأتيها من العرق الضارب‏.‏ وللعصبة التي تتصل بالكبد شعبتان صغيرتان جداً والمرارة كالمثانة طبقة واحدة مؤلفة من أصناف الليف الثلاثة وإذا لم تجذب المرارة المرار أو جذبت فلم تستنق عنه حدثت آفات فإن الصفراء إذا احتبست فوق المرارة أو رمت الكبد وأورثت اليرقان وربما عفنت وأحدثت حميات رديئة‏.‏ وإذا سالت إلى أعضاء البول بإفراط قرحت وإذا سالت إلى عضو ما أحدثت الحمرة والنملة وإذا دبت في البدن كله ساكنة غير هائجة أحدثت اليرقان وإذا سالت عن المرارة إلى الأمعاء بإفراط أورثت الإسهال المراري والسحج‏.‏  

13 Amp plug and heater (large print)

by Rnib

This page shows a labelled diagram of a UK 13 Amp plug connected to an electric heater. The plug has its top removed to reveal its internal wiring and the heater has its cover removed. There is a locator dot shown, which will be at the top left of the page when the image is the correct way up. The heater is to the left of the page. It has its cover removed. Its components are attached to a square backing plate that fills most of the left of the page. At the top, are the two heating elements made of coiled wire connected to the switch to the right and to the mains cable down and right. The earth wire is screwed to a terminal on the bottom of the heaters backing plate. The thick cable extends from the bottom left of the heater to where it is clamped to the plug on the right of the page. The three wires emerge from the cable and connect to the three screw terminals marked neutral, earth and live. The fuse is shown just down the page from the live terminal.

13 Amp plug and heater (UEB contracted)

by Rnib

This page shows a labelled diagram of a UK 13 Amp plug connected to an electric heater. The plug has its top removed to reveal its internal wiring and the heater has its cover removed. There is a locator dot shown, which will be at the top left of the page when the image is the correct way up. The heater is to the left of the page. It has its cover removed. Its components are attached to a square backing plate that fills most of the left of the page. At the top, are the two heating elements made of coiled wire connected to the switch to the right and to the mains cable down and right. The earth wire is screwed to a terminal on the bottom of the heaters backing plate. The thick cable extends from the bottom left of the heater to where it is clamped to the plug on the right of the page. The three wires emerge from the cable and connect to the three screw terminals marked neutral, earth and live. The fuse is shown just down the page from the live terminal.

13 Amp plug and heater (UEB uncontracted)

by Rnib

This page shows a labelled diagram of a UK 13 Amp plug connected to an electric heater. The plug has its top removed to reveal its internal wiring and the heater has its cover removed. There is a locator dot shown, which will be at the top left of the page when the image is the correct way up. The heater is to the left of the page. It has its cover removed. Its components are attached to a square backing plate that fills most of the left of the page. At the top, are the two heating elements made of coiled wire connected to the switch to the right and to the mains cable down and right. The earth wire is screwed to a terminal on the bottom of the heaters backing plate. The thick cable extends from the bottom left of the heater to where it is clamped to the plug on the right of the page. The three wires emerge from the cable and connect to the three screw terminals marked neutral, earth and live. The fuse is shown just down the page from the live terminal.

200 Science Investigations for Young Students

by Martin Wenham

This book enables teachers to develop a complete range of basic investigations for science with students aged five to 11 years. It demonstrates how children can use hands-on activities to consolidate and extend their knowledge and understanding. Investigations are presented in a generic form, so that teachers can work through them and adapt them to meet the particular needs of their own classes. The presentation of activities ranges from highly-structured sequences of instructions and questions (with answers!), to more general discussions, depending on the approach needed and the likely variations in equipment and materials available. Each activity is aimed to help any teacher carry out significant scientific investigations with their class, and where necessary, to learn alongside them. - Almost every investigation and activity has been tested by the author. - Investigations use readily-available, non-specialist or recycled materials. The context of this book is children's need to learn through first-hand experience of the world around them. This book is an essential resource for teachers planning an effective science programme, or for student teachers needing to broaden their scientific knowledge and understanding. 200 Science Investigations for Young Students is the companion volume of activities which demonstrate the theories in Martin Wenham's Understanding Primary Science. The content has been guided by, but not limited to, The National Curriculum 2000 and the Initial Teacher Training Curriculum for Primary Science, issued by the Teacher Training Agency.

200 Science Investigations for Young Students: Practical Activities for Science 5 to 11 (1st edition) (PDF)

by Martin Wenham

This book enables teachers to develop a complete range of basic investigations for science with students aged five to 11 year years. It demonstrates how children can use hands-on activities to consolidate and extend their knowledge and understanding. Investigations are presented in a generic form, so that teachers can work through them and adapt them to meet the particular needs of their own classes. The presentation of activities ranges from highly-structured sequences of instructions and questions (with answers!), to more general discussions, depending on the approach needed and the likely variations in equipment and materials available. The content has been guided by, but not limited to, The National Curriculum 2000 and the Initial Teacher Training Curriculum for Primary Science, issued by the Teacher Training Agency.

21st Century Science: GCSE Additional Science Higher (PDF)

by Penny Johnson

Deliver the promise of 21st Century Science to ALL your students Longman 21st Century Science is the nation s favourite course for OCR s new 21st Century Science GCSE specifications. Fully differentiated for GCSE and GCSE Additional Science, it is written by a team of teachers and examiners who really understand how science is taught in the classroom. Written by an expert author team of examiners and teachers, led by best-selling Exploring Science author, Penny Johnson, to give complete coverage of OCR s 21st Century Science specifications Meets the needs of all students with the most differentiated materials available for 21st Century Science Gives students unparalleled support with clear and motivating Students Books Motivates students with interactive ICT resources directly accessed from the pages of the FREE ActiveBook CD-ROM that accompanies each Students Book

21st Century Science: GCSE Science Higher (PDF)

by Penny Marshall Michael O'Neill Steve Woolley Penny Johnson Gary Philpott Michele Francis Sue Kearsley Peter Ellis

The motivating Foundation and Higher Tier Students Books are available for both GCSE and GCSE Additional Science. And new for 2007 are the Higher Tier Students Books containing the Further Science Units required for GCSE Biology, GCSE Chemistry and GCSE Physics. The FREE ActiveBook CD-ROM included with every Students Book gives students even more support during individual and home study and cater for a wide range of learning styles.

40 Years of Evolution: Darwin's Finches on Daphne Major Island

by B. Rosemary Grant Peter R. Grant

Renowned evolutionary biologists Peter and Rosemary Grant have produced landmark studies of the Galápagos finches first made famous by Charles Darwin. In How and Why Species Multiply, they offered a complete evolutionary history of Darwin's finches since their origin almost three million years ago. Now, in their richly illustrated new book, 40 Years of Evolution, the authors turn their attention to events taking place on a contemporary scale. By continuously tracking finch populations over a period of four decades, they uncover the causes and consequences of significant events leading to evolutionary changes in species.The authors used a vast and unparalleled range of ecological, behavioral, and genetic data--including song recordings, DNA analyses, and feeding and breeding behavior--to measure changes in finch populations on the small island of Daphne Major in the Galápagos archipelago. They find that natural selection happens repeatedly, that finches hybridize and exchange genes rarely, and that they compete for scarce food in times of drought, with the remarkable result that the finch populations today differ significantly in average beak size and shape from those of forty years ago. The authors' most spectacular discovery is the initiation and establishment of a new lineage that now behaves as a new species, differing from others in size, song, and other characteristics. The authors emphasize the immeasurable value of continuous long-term studies of natural populations and of critical opportunities for detecting and understanding rare but significant events.By following the fates of finches for several generations, 40 Years of Evolution offers unparalleled insights into ecological and evolutionary changes in natural environments.

40 Years of Evolution: Darwin's Finches on Daphne Major Island (PDF)

by B. Rosemary Grant Peter R. Grant

Renowned evolutionary biologists Peter and Rosemary Grant have produced landmark studies of the Galápagos finches first made famous by Charles Darwin. In How and Why Species Multiply, they offered a complete evolutionary history of Darwin's finches since their origin almost three million years ago. Now, in their richly illustrated new book, 40 Years of Evolution, the authors turn their attention to events taking place on a contemporary scale. By continuously tracking finch populations over a period of four decades, they uncover the causes and consequences of significant events leading to evolutionary changes in species.The authors used a vast and unparalleled range of ecological, behavioral, and genetic data--including song recordings, DNA analyses, and feeding and breeding behavior--to measure changes in finch populations on the small island of Daphne Major in the Galápagos archipelago. They find that natural selection happens repeatedly, that finches hybridize and exchange genes rarely, and that they compete for scarce food in times of drought, with the remarkable result that the finch populations today differ significantly in average beak size and shape from those of forty years ago. The authors' most spectacular discovery is the initiation and establishment of a new lineage that now behaves as a new species, differing from others in size, song, and other characteristics. The authors emphasize the immeasurable value of continuous long-term studies of natural populations and of critical opportunities for detecting and understanding rare but significant events.By following the fates of finches for several generations, 40 Years of Evolution offers unparalleled insights into ecological and evolutionary changes in natural environments.

A-Level Year 1 and AS: Biology: Edexcel A: Complete Revision and Practice (PDF)

by Cgp Books

New 2015 A-Level Biology: Edexcel A-Level Year 1 & AS Complete Revision and Practice

A-level Year 2 Physics: Exam Board: Aqa: The Complete Course For Aqa

by Cgp Books Jonathan Wray Sarah Williams Charlotte Whiteley Frances Rooney Rachael Marshall David Maliphant Emily Garrett

This superb CGP Student Book has everything students will need for success in Year 2 of AQA A-Level Physics - and it's fully up-to-date for the new specifications for 2015 and beyond! It covers all the Core Year 2 content (Sections 6, 7 and 8), plus the Optional Sections 9, 10, 11 and 12. Inside, you'll find in-depth, accessible notes explaining every topic, supported by clear diagrams, photographs, tips and worked examples. To test students' knowledge and understanding, there are practice questions and exam-style questions throughout the book - with complete answers included. There's also detailed guidance on Maths Skills, Practical

A2 Biology for AQA, student book (PDF)

by Mary Jones Lesley Higginbottom Keith Hirst

Collins A2 Biology for AQA is the ideal resource to support you through the 2008 AQA GCE course. It has been developed with the help of AQA examiners to ensure a perfect match to the 2008 specification and provides everything you need to succeed in your exam. This book covers AQA Biology A2 units: Unit 4 - Populations and Environment Unit 5 - Control in Cells and in Organisms.

A2 Chemistry for AQA, student book (PDF)

by Angela Saunders Nigel Saunders

The ideal text for the new AQA A2 chemistry specification. It emphasises how science works and brings the new specification to life.

A2-Level Biology AQA Revision Guide (PDF)

by Cgp Books

A2-Level Biology AQA Revision Guide

A2-Level Biology: Edexcel: The Revision Guide (PDF)

by Rosie Gillham Katie Braid Jane Towle Katherine Craig Ellen Bowness Murray Hamilton Charlotte Burrows Richard Parsons Joe Brazier

This book is full of clear notes and exam-style practice questions covering every A2 Biology topic for the Edexcel exam board.

A2-Level Chemistry Edexcel Complete Revision and Practice (PDF)

by Richard Parsons Sharon Keeley David Hickinson Paul Jordin Sarah Hilton Amy Boutal Mary Falkner Simon Little

This book is full of clear notes and exam-style practice questions covering every AS Chemistry topic for the EDEXCEL exam board. Everything you need to know is explained simply and thoroughly including fully coloured diagrams.

About Time: Narrative, Fiction and the Philosophy of Time

by Mark Currie

Why have theorists approached narrative primarily as a form of retrospect? Mark Currie argues that anticipation and other forms of projection into the future are vital for an understanding of narrative and its effects in the world. In a series of arguments and readings, he offers an account of narrative as both anticipation and retrospection, linking fictional time experiments (in Ali Smith, Ian McEwan, Martin Amis and Graham Swift) to exhilarating philosophical themes about presence and futurity. This is an argument that shows that narrative lies at the heart of modern experiences of time, structuring the present, whether personal or collective, as the object of a future memory as much as it records the past.

Absolute Science Pupil Book 1

by Geoff Jones Mary Jones Emma Poole Brian Arnold

Absolute Science is an exciting and dynamic new self-contained scheme aimed squarely at pupils ranging between levels 3 and 6 with plenty of extension material for pupils working at levels 7 and 8. This pupil book contains starter activities at the beginning of each chapter illustrating science in the real world. It contains questions throughout each chapter to reinforce knowledge and questions for the whole class or group discussion.

Absolute Science Pupil Book 1 (PDF)

by Geoff Jones Mary Jones Emma Poole Brian Arnold

Absolute Science is an exciting and dynamic new self-contained scheme aimed squarely at pupils ranging between levels 3 and 6 with plenty of extension material for pupils working at levels 7 and 8. This pupil book contains starter activities at the beginning of each chapter illustrating science in the real world. It contains questions throughout each chapter to reinforce knowledge and questions for the whole class or group discussion.

Absolute Science Pupil Book 2

by Geoff Jones Mary Jones Emma Poole Brian Arnold

Absolute Science fully implements the Framework for Teaching Science Years 7, 8 and 9. Offering great flexibility and support for teaching and learning, Absolute Science corresponds completely with the QCA Scheme of Work.

Absolute Science Pupil Book 2 (PDF)

by Geoff Jones Mary Jones Emma Poole Brian Arnold

Absolute Science fully implements the Framework for Teaching Science Years 7, 8 and 9. Offering great flexibility and support for teaching and learning, Absolute Science corresponds completely with the QCA Scheme of Work.

Absolute Science Pupil Book 3

by Geoff Jones Mary Jones Emma Poole Brian Arnold

Absolute Science fully implements the Framework for Teaching Science Years 7, 8 and 9. Offering great flexibility and support for teaching and learning, Absolute Science corresponds completely with the QCA Scheme of Work. It contains questions throughout each chapter to reinforce knowledge, and questions for the whole class or group discussion.

Absolute Science Pupil Book 3 (PDF)

by Mary Jones Brian Arnold Emma Poole Geoff Jones

Absolute Science fully implements the Framework for Teaching Science Years 7, 8 and 9. Offering great flexibility and support for teaching and learning, Absolute Science corresponds completely with the QCA Scheme of Work. It contains questions throughout each chapter to reinforce knowledge, and questions for the whole class or group discussion.

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